Name Eng. Meaning Hindi Meaning Guj. Meaning
Paamar wretched, miserable; narrow minded; insignificant; meek, poor.
Paamarataa miserability, poor state, narrow mindedness, unhappiness, dejection,
Paan liquid diet.
Paanidaar invaluable.
Paap sin; crime; wickedness; evil deed; evil intent; wicked, troublesome, hated, trouble; calamity One can perform paap in 108 ways. 3:samrambh, samaarambh, aarambh to think about it, to acquire materials and to actually perform act of sin. 3. mind, speech and action. 3. Krut, kaarit, anumodan. to perform the sinful act, to encourage others to do it and to applauding the act. 4. Anger deceit ego and greed. 3x3x3x4= 108.
Paap bhaav soul’s inauspicious manifestation of consciousness, unwholesome, inauspicious dispositions
Paapopadesh evil instruction
Paaranu meal taken at the end of fast or vow, breaking of fast. cradle.
Paarinaamic bhaav eternal innate nature of the soul, This is non relativistic in nature. it is nirpexa, inherent nature, essential nature of the self irrespective of karmic fruition.
Paarinaamic bhaava inherent nature, Natural activity of soul, For every substance has its own eternal state which is without any alien attachment and that is its paarimaamic bhaav, Pratyek padaarth ke nirupaadhik tathaa trikaalik swabhaav ko uskaa paarinaamic bhaav kahaa jaataa hai, transformation of a substance which is automatically called forth by a mere existence of this substance, natural self transformation undergone by a substance
Paarmaarthic relating to the highest truth or spiritual knowledge; caring for truth; spiritual; real, transcendental, true, proper, vaastavik, yathaarth, Paarmaarthic
Paarmeswari Of omniscient lord’s
Paath reading or reciting; regular reading, recitation, of religious books; lesson; text of book, reading; portion of text book to be read in a day; acting; teaching.
Paatli small tripod or stool of rolling chapatis
Paatrataa eligibility, worthiness, competency, proficiency, mastery, talent, desirable, suitable. suitability, good character.
Pad collection of letters a word,foot; foot print. n. rank, station; [gram.] word having meaning; a form of poem; [math.] term; root; articles given to a Brahmin (priest) in connection with a religious vow or obsequial ceremony. a part of scriptural knowledge shrut gnaan. There are 20 divisions of scriptural knowledge. the 5th one is Pad. Pad also has three parts named as: arth pad, pramaan pad, madhyam pad. A foot, on foot, anything appended to a pada or quarter of a verse.
Pad પદ consciousness belongs to soul. It stays in the soul and it is the characteristic of soul. While inclination of attachment etc are apad અપદ. Inclination of attachment etc are non protection, non guarding. They are non characteristic of the soul. They do not belong in soul.
Padaartha meaning of a word, thing corresponding to a word, a thing, object,substance, matter, essential thing; principle, padaarth means a thing which has substance, attributes and modes. (this is the style of pravachansar).Tatva means reality, element and arth means its bhaav. This arth means padaarth. Tattva refers to a thing from naya perspective, padaarth means thing from pramaan perspectives. Padaarth pramaan kaa vishay hotaa hai. Tattva means the reality and arth means padaarth. Therefore tattvaarth includes tattva and paddarth both. Tattvaarth shradhdhaanaam samyag darshan means shraddha in tattva and padaarth both means samyag darshan.
Padasth Dhyaan When one takes the support of the pure letters and performs meditation then it is known as Padasth Dhyaan. Here the main support taken is of the words because words get generated from vowels and consonants. Therefore it is also known as varna maartrukaa dhyaan. In the beginning from the center of the navel one establishes a lotus with 16 petals. And on each petal, he meditates 16 vowels in succession. These 16 vowels are: अआइईउऊऋलृएऐओऔअंअः Thereafter on the heart he establishes a lotus with 24 petals and then he meditates on following 25 consonants: क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध न प फ ब भ म Then the aspirant soul imagines the third lotus in his mouth with eight petals and then imagines the remaining eight consonants: They are: य र ल व श ष स ह. In this way the aspirant soul meditates on these vowels and consonants. With this type of meditation, he now becomes the knower of the scriptural knowledge shrug gnaan. Thirty five, sixteen, six, five, four, two and one letters are manta representing five supreme beings. Aspirant soul meditates on these mantra. They are: नमो अरिहंताणं नमो सिद्धाण नमो आयरियाणं नमो उवज्झायनम नमो लोए सव्व साहूणं 35 letters. अहंतसिद्धाचार्यपाध्यायसर्वçसाधुभ्योनमः, अरहित सिद्ध आयरिय उवज्झाय साहू 16 letters अरहित सिद्ध, अरहित सि सा, ॐ नमः सिद्धभ्यो, नमोङहर्त्सिद्धभ्यो 6 letters अ सि आ उ सा, नमो सिद्धाण —five letters अरहित, अ सि साहू —four letters. ॐ ह्रीं, सिद्ध, अ सि — two letters ॐ, ओ, अ, सि one letter. With this padasth dhyaan, one ends up knowing the eternal substances and with the worshipping of the deities he is progressing towards the liberation. He also ends up with manifestation of super sensuous knowledge. Ref: Ref: Paatanjal Yog evam Jain Yog Kaa Tulnaatmak Adhyayan fifth adhyaay Aadhyaatmik Vikaas Kram page 230-231, Gnaanarnav slok 1910-2032 on chapter of Padasth Dhyaan, Vachanaamrut Shrimad Rajchandra patrak 761)) (ref: gnaanaarnav 37/1, dravya sangraha stanza 48,49, vasunandi shravakaachaar 458-480 gatha.) नमो अरिहंताणं नमो सिद्धाण नमो आयरियाणं नमो उवज्झायनम नमो लोए सव्व साहूणं 35 letters. अहंतसिद्धाचार्यपाध्यायसर्वसाधुभ्योनमः, अरहित सिद्ध आयरिय उवज्झाय साहू 16 letters अरहित सिद्ध, अरहित सि सा, ॐ नमः सिद्धभ्यो, नमोङहर्त्सिद्धभ्यो 6 letters अ सि आ उ सा, नमो सिद्धाण —five letters अरहित, अ सि साहू —four letters. ॐ ह्रीं, सिद्ध, अ सि — two letters ॐ, ओ, अ, सि one letter.
Padbhut self entity.
Paddhatti method, mode, way; systematic method or way of doing things; book describing such method, traditional custom, paramparaagat rit rivaaj.
Padm lotus (flower); red lotus; coloured marks on the trunk and face of elephant; a mil lion millions, billion; one of the weapons of Vishnu; one of the six centres or chakras in the body according to Hatha Yoga; lotus like mark of significance in palmistry on finger tip or on sole of foot; mark on hood of cobra; one of the nine treasures of Kubera.
Padmaasan one of the eighty four asanas of yoga, to sit with folded legs.
Pahechaan acquaintance; recognition; familiarity; mark of recognition; reference; guarantee by a known person.
Paksha , subject, wind, side, aspect, side of an argument, jo saadhya se yukt hokar hetu aadi ke dwaaraa vyakt kiyaa jaaye use paksh kahte hai,Saadhya dharma se yukt dharmi ko paksha kahate hai. Mountain is the paksha (in which fire saadhya is present) that is why mountain is called saadhya yukt dharmi , where there is presence of saadhya fire dharm. It is known as minor term (in syllogism), subject, probandum, Jisko hum prasiddh karnaa chaahte hai usko paksh kahate hai. one which we are trying to show is known as paksh. Fire is there because there is smoke. Where is the smoke.? It is on the hill. Therefore hill’s fire is subject that we want to prove. Fire is also present in the kitchen and on the hill but at present our subject paksha is hill’s fire. So we are not talking about fire present in the kitchen. We are talking the fire present on the hill. Therefore hill’s fire is the paksha. Fire itself is not paksha but the hill’ fire is our paksha. Kitchen’s fire is not our paksha in this discussion.There is presence of raag and therefore there is soul. One says that the siddh soul has no raag. For that person we can say that we are not talking about the siddh soul. We are talking about the transmigratory soul with the raag. So the transmigratory soul’s raag becomes paksha. My paksh is transmigratory soul. By saying presence of raag I am not talking about siddh soul. My paksha is transmigratory soul. jahaan dharm paayaa jaataa hai use dharmi kahate hai. Wherever attributes dharma are perceived is known as dharmi that which supports. Dharmi is known as paksha. e.g raag waalaa atma. Here the dharmi is atma and raag is dharma. One is talking about the fire on the hill and ignorant soul now starts talking about the fire in the kitchen. One is talking about the soul with bonded karma and ignorant soul ends up talking about the soul with no karma bondage at all. The nischyayaabhaasi is born in this situation. The fallacy of absolute point occurs in this situation. One must know which soul is been discussed and concentration has to be there. If the discussion is for the bonded soul then one has to understand that perspective and not to confuse with mixing up the discussion of the pure eternal soul. Its that in which the presence of probandum is not known for certain and is yet to be proved; e.g. the mountain is probandum when smoke is probans. Paksh means aashray, refuge.
Pakshaabhaas fallacious arguments.
Pakshaatikraant to experience the true nature of the soul.
Pakshpaat partiality, favoritism, adopting a side or argument, sympathizing, partiality; partisanship.
Pal period of 24 second, moment.
Pan But; nevertheless; besides, moreover; also. પણ
Panch bhaava five types of emotions.
Panch labdhi five achievements.
Panch mahaa bhut the five elements according to Hindu cosmology, viz. earth, water, light, air and space. aakaash, pruthvi, jal, tej, vaayu.
Panch paraavartan mundane soul wanders in five kind of cycle of wandering.
Panch parmesthi five supreme souls. see panch parmesthi slides for their attributes. it is in jainism slides in documents section on kirit’s computer.
Panch samavaaya please see Samavaaya.
Panchaachaar five activities of monk darshan, gnaan, charitra, tap and virya.
Panchaastikaay written by Aachaarya kundkund describing the 6 substances and 9 elements. Has 173 stanzas. Amrutchandra Aachaarya wrote tikaa and it is samay vyaakhyaa and Jaysen Aachaarya wrote tikaa named Tatpary Vrutti. Pande Hemraj ji wrote Hindi tikaa of Samay Vyaakhyaa and is known as Baalaav Bodh Bhaashaa Tikaa.
Pank mud.
Pankti line, row; row of persons sitting down for meal.
Panktibhed partially in serving at dinner; discrimination in the matter of rows at dinner (not allowing certain persons to sit side by side in the same row).
Panu it shows the characteristics after a given word. see gnaayakpanu.
Par alien being, non self.
Par bhaava alien condition, alien quality
Par Bramh eternal true nature of soul.
Par chatustaya alien tetrad, alien quaternity,
Par dravya alien substance
Par gneya alien recognizable objects
Par kshetra alien space point.
Par lakshi objective,
Par naa Apvaad rup parinati alien modification of blaming others. apvaad means to blame.
Par nimitta alien instrumental cause
Par parinati alien modification.
Par paritaap rup parinati the alien modeification in which one thinks of inflicting pain to others
Par prakaashak revelation of alien substances.
Par rup similar to alien objects, having the form of alien object,
Par samay false believer, the impure one, absorbed in the non self.
Par Sthaan Sankraman When there is change in the karmic nature occurs and “leshyaa” also changes accordingly then it is known as “par sthaan sankraman”.
Par stri gaman unchaste person.
Par vyavashaayak with knowledge one knows the alien objects like pot, cloth etc. This is par vyavashaayak knowledge. conviction regarding alien objects.
Paraa drasti This the goal of the achiever. He is free from all the likes and dislikes. He is fully stabilized and is surpasses all codes of conduct. He has achieved omniscience. He is in the transcendental supreme stage of complete bliss and freedom. This is the stage of samaadhi.
Paraaavart exchange; turning back, reflection.
Paraabhav defeat.
Paraadhinta dependency, orthodoxy, constraint,
Paraangmukh not to have attention towards out side things.
Paraapar guru the enlightened monks who follow the Omniscient Lord’s preachings.
Paraarth subservient to others.
Paraarth pramaan estimating other with valid knowledge. Paraarth pramaan is vachan roop. Shrut pramaan is swaarth as well as pararath pramaan, verbal verification with authenticity and impartiality, vachanaatmak pramaan paraarth pramaan kahevaay chhe. swaarth pramaan is with nature of knowledge, swarth pramaan gnaan swamp chhe. paraarth pramaan vachan swarup chhe.
Paraarth shout the form of words constitute pramaan for others.
Paraarthaanumaan inference through the help of articulated propositions for convincing other in a debate, inference for the shake of others, syllogistic inference.
Paraashrit based on alien substances, alien dependancy.
Paraavalamban dependence on others.
Paraavartan cycle of change, independence, Since time infinite the mundane soul keeps on wandering in cycle of transmigration due to wrong faith is known as paraavartan, parivartan, paribhraman, and transmigration. One which shows the transmigration is known as transmigratory souls. Cycle of change is also known as transmigration. Cycle of change is of five types:1: Cycle of matter Dravya Parivartan related to matter particles’acceptance and renunciation. A: quasi karma cycle of matter no karma B: Karma cycle of matter karma 2: Cycle of space Kshetra Parivartan To touch the space points of the space related cycle. 3: Cycle of time-Kaal Parivartan-cycle related to having birth and death related to the time cycle. 4: Cycle of incarnation-Bhav Parivartan-to accept birth and to die related to infernal etc realms 5: Cycle of thoughts-Bhaav Parivartan.-Having changes occurring due to passions and yog related births and deaths (Ref: Kartikey Anuprexa gaathaa 66). Dravya Paraavartan:-Cycle of Matter: Living being keeps on accepting karma particles like knowledge obscuring karma etc in a given samay. Thereafter he keeps on discarding those particles time to time. Similarly he also keeps on accepting quasi karma particles in a given samay and then keeps on discarding throughout the life. Now in the counting of the paraavartan, in first samay, living being accepts such material particles with their own intensity of greasiness, dryness, color, smell, taste, intense, medium or mild intentions. When this living being ends up accepting same intensity of these particles in exact same proportions and with same intensity as before then it is counted as one cycle of matter-dravya paraavaran. This living being has made infinite such cycles in the past. Nokarma Dravya Paraavartan: Quasi karma Cycle of Matter: One includes gross body with electric and karma bodies, and also fluid body with electric and karma body-these types of three bodies. Also one has to include six capacity to development. They are: food particles (ahar vargana), speech particles (bhasha vargana), mind particles (mano vargana), senses particles (indriya vargana), body particles (sharir vargana), and respiratory particles (swashochchhwas vargana). They are able to give the soul the power to make a proper body and senses in their fullest form of development. Living being accepts the material particles for these three bodies and six types of capacity to development in a given moment and again the same numbers and types of material particles with their same characteristics of touch taste smell and color are accepted in future then he has completed one quasi karma cycle of matter. Karma Dravya Paraavartan-Karmic particles cycle of matter: A living being accepts eight types of karma with their own characteristics. When the same living being accepts the same number of karma particles with the same characteristics of touch taste smell color etc then there is one karma dravya paraavartan. Time for the Nokarma and Karma Dravya Paraavaran is same. Kshetra Paraavaran-Cycle of Space: The relations with the living being’s deluded state and the space points of the space is mentioned in this cycle of space. The center eight space points of the cosmic space and center eight space points of the body of the subtle one sensed incompletely developed minimal body and with lowest possible birth-sukshma nigod mein aparyaapt sarva jaghanya sharir vaalaa aur shudra bhav ko praapt hua-are taken in to consideration. Such living being takes birth here and thereafter in sequence he takes birth in adjacent space point. When the living being finished touching all the space points of the cosmic space then the first kshetra paraavartan is done. The living being made infinite such cycle of space in the past. Kaal Paraavaran-cycle of time: A time cycle is of two types: ascending and descending. Both are of ten krodaa krodi saagaaropam years. So total time cycle is of 20 Krodaa Krodi Sagaro Pam-KKSP years. When the living being takes birth in the first samay of the time cycle and in sequence finishes taking birth in total 20 KKSP years, and similarly he dies in each samay in sequence in all of the 20 KKSP years then one kaal paraavartan is done. Bhav Paraavartan: Cycle of Incarnation: The minimum age for infernal and celestial beings is 10,000 years and maximum is 33 saagaaropam year. Minimum age of humans and subhumans is intra indian hour-antarmuhurt to the maximum of three palya ( palya is very long period of time with the example of the ditch of one yojan long, width and deep and fill with hairs pieces of the newly born sheep and take one piece out every 100 years. Time taken is one palya). When the living being takes birth in each realm in sequence with each samay and the time taken for completion of these periods is known as one bhav paraavartan-cycle of incarnation. Bhaav Paraavartan:-cycle of thoughts: Karma bondage is of four types: 1. Prakruti bandh-types of karma bondage e.g. knowledge obscuring karma etc. different types, 2. Pradesh bandh-amount of karma particles bondage. 3. Anubhaag bandh-at the time of karma bondage the intensity of fruition is decided and that is anubhaag bandh 4. Sthiti bandh-at the time of karma bondage the duration is decided and that is sthiti bandh. The prakruti and pradesh bandh are related to the vibratory activity of the space points of the soul-yog-and sthiti and anubhaag are decided by passions of the soul. Therefore yog and passions of the soul become the instrumental cause for karma bondage. Therefore yog and passions determine the four types of karma bondage. These inclinations of the soul are infinite in numbers. When soul take birth with each of these inclinations in sequential order then one cycle of thought is completed. One must remember that the order of the yog and passions have to be in sequential order starting from minimal to maximum. Karma get bonded in four forms: 1: Prakruti-types ( e.g. knowledge obscuring etc. eight types), 2: Pradesh-amount of karma particles getting bonded, 3: Duration-how long karma will stay with the soul, (minimum time to maximum time-e.g. knowledge obscuring karma minimum time is intra indian hour and maximum is 30 krodaa krodi sagaropam) 4: Intensity at the time of fruition-anubhaag. With each of the four karma bondage types there are corresponding thought process-adhyavasaan occurring in the soul. Soul’s vibratory activity of the space points occurring corresponding to the “types and amount” of karma bondage is known as yog sthaan. Soul’s thought process corresponding to the duration of the karma bondage is known as Sthiti bandh adhyavashaan sthaan. Soul’s thought process corresponding to the intensity of karma bondage is known as anubhaag bandh adhyavasaan sthaan. For each yog sthaan there is corresponding sthiti and also anubhaag sthaan has to occur in sequence. That means there has to have permutation and combination of the three forms in the soul’s sphere has to occur. One must remember that these permutation combination has to be in sequence only. For example with first yog sthaan, there has to have corresponding first sthiti and anubhaag sthaan and thereafter sequence continues in order only. In between time when out of sequence the thought process occurs at the time of birth of this fully developed sential five sense wrong faith living being (sangni panchendriya paryaapt jiv) is not counted. All these changes in sequence are to be observed in the sential five being livings only When one finishes these corresponding yog sthaan, sthti bandh sthaan and anubhaag bandh adhyavasaan sthaan in sequence in fully developed sential five sense wrong believer living being (sangni panchendriya paryaapt jiv) then one bhaav paraavartan is completed. In these five cycles, the cycle of thoughts is the absolute conception-nischaya-and remaining four are conventional conception-vyavahaar.These five cycles of changes are only occurring to wrong faith living being. With right faith there is no cycle of changes seen. There are so many living beings presently living as permanent status in the lowest form of life-nitya nigodh-but they have capacity for these five cycles. They have not entered all those cycles but have capacity. So with conventional usage-upchaar-they are been said to be in five cycles. There are also some living beings who have yet not accepted all the matter particles of the universe. But because of having inclination of attachment and aversion, they have capacity to accept those particles and that is why it is been said that they have accepted particles infinite times. A living being keeps on wandering in these five cycles due to his own doing. With his own inclinations he keeps on wandering. (Ref: Sarvaarth siddhi adhyaay 2, sutra 10. Moksh shastra adhyaay 2 sutra 10, samyag gnaan chandrikaa 16th chapter-bhaavya maarg praarupnaa, Gommatsaar jiv kaand gatha 560, Parmaatma Prakaash adhyaay 1 doshaa 77,Brahad dravya sangrah gaathaa 35, Kartikeya anuprekshaa gaathaa 70)
Paraghaat to injure or kill some one.
Parakiya belonging to another, another’s wife, stranger, hostile,
Param supreme, best or greatest; previous to yesterday or subsequent to tomorrow.
Param aagam highest scriptures.
Param aanand supreme bliss.
Param advait path to salvation, ultimate state of super sensuous bliss
Param audaarik sharir supremely pure gross body, body of the omniscient lord devoid of any lowest forms of lives within, nigodh jiv rahit kevali nu sharir
Param Avagaadh supreme pervasive.
Param bhaava lakshan quality of supreme nature.
Param brahma supreme soul
Param dharma supreme righteousness.
Param dharma dhyaan path to salvation, ultimate state of super sensuous bliss,
Param ekatva path to salvation, ultimate state of super sensuous bliss.
Param gnaan supreme knowledge, omniscient knowledge,
Param guru excellent teacher, omniscient lord, supreme teacher,
Param jyoti unsurpassed splendor. supreme splendor,
Param nij swarup path to salvation, ultimate state of super sensuous bliss,
Param nyaaya conclusion
Param paarinaamic bhaav inherent nature, Natural activity of soul, For every substance has its own eternal state which is without any alien attachment and that is its paarimaamic bhaav, Pratyek padaarth ke nirupaadhik tathaa trikaalik swabhaav ko uskaa paarinaamic bhaav kahaa jaataa hai, transformation of a substance which is automatically called forth by a mere existence of this substance, natural self transformation undergone by a substance
Param pad highest position; final beatitude.
Param purush god.
Param rushi lord arihant, supreme authority,
Param samrasi bhaav embodiment of total passionless state.
Param shaanti unrivaled peace
Param shuddha nischaya naya a view point believing in Supreme pure soul, The partial point of view which makes the object of faith and vision drasti no Vishay of the soul which is devoid of color etc, inclination of attachment etc and divisions of attributes and involves only the eternal, undivided, indivisible, oneness, nature of the all knower virtue only. The partial point of view which makes the object of knowledge to the pure inherent nature of the soul in its universal nature saamaanya ansh se is known as param shuddh nishchaya naya. This itself is the pure eternal true nature of the self. It is the object of the knowledge mode which is directed to the self, is veneration for venerable and contemplation for worth contemplating.Some times the “view point believing Supreme pure soul” param shuddh nishchay naya is also mentioned as shuddh nischaya naya absolute pure point of view and also as nishchaya naya absolute point of view, or shuddh maya pure point of view. They all having same meanings.The presentation of Param Shuddh Nishchay Naya in scriptures is as follow: 1: From perspective of Shuddh Nishchaya Naya, it is the support for the inherent nature of pure attributes like knowledge etc. Therefore it is also known as kaaran suddh jiv-soul with causes of purity. 2: From absolute point of view the living being is living with its eternal existence,-satta, consciousness-chaitanyatva, and knowledge etc attributes. These are his vitalities-praans. 3: One who meditates-dhyaataa-has contemplations-bhaavnaa-that he is completely unobstructed-sakal niraavaran, indivisible-akhand, having oneness-ek, direct experiencing-pratyaksha pratibhaasmay, non destroyable-avinashvar, of pure inherent nature-shuddh paarinaamic, having supreme virtues-param bhaav lakshanwaalaa, and I my self is god. I am not having any fragmentation of knowledge. (samaysar gatha 320, Jaysen acharya tikaa) 4: From perspectives of the absolute pure point of view-shuddh nishchay naya-all the transmigratory souls are pure in nature-Brahad dravya sangrah gatha 13. 5: Maglacharan of Param Bhaav Prakaashak Naya chakra also mentions nature of “view point believing Supreme pure soul”-param shuddh nishchaya naya. परम शुद्ध निश्चय नय, रंग राग और भेद से रहित त्रकिाली अखंड अभेद एक ज्ञायक भाव अर्थात शुद्ध पारणिामकि भाव रूप, दृष्टि के विषय को अपना विषय बनाता है शुद्ध पारणिामकि भाव रूप सामान्य अंश की मुख्यता से आत्मा को जानने वाले ज्ञान को परम शुद्धनिश्चय नय कहते हैं। यही शुद्धात्मा, स्व सन्मुख ज्ञान का ज्ञेय, श्रद्धा का श्रद्धेय तथा ध्यान का ध्येय है
Param tattva ultimate reality; Supreme Being, Brahma, supreme reality,
Param tatva gnaan knowledge of the supreme reality, ultimate state of bliss, param advaita
Paramaanand ecstasy, ultimate bliss, path to salvation, ultimate state of super sensuous bliss,
Paramaarth highest end of man, emancipation; ultimate reality; benevolence, ultimate view, point transcendental, highest truth, release from rebirth, transcendental reality, vaastavik, real, true; proper
paramaarth baahya saint who does not have quality of differentiating self from other.
Paramaarth buddhi spirit of benevolence; altruism.
Paramaarth pratyaksha direct non sensory perception, direct intuition,
Paramaarth sat ultimate constituents, transcendental realm of truth, very true reality, ultimately real,
Paramaarth satya ultimate truth, transcendental realm of truth, param satya,
Paramaarth tattva suddhopyog, supreme element
Paramaarthi benevolent; altruistic.
Paramaatma tatva supreme spiritual element
Paramaavadhi higher form of clairvoyance knowledge which is free from such limitations of deshaavadhi. (see avadhi gnaan for further details)
Paramaavadhi supreme clairvoyance,
Paramaavagaadh ruchi darshanaarya a type of aarya, noble person,
Paramaavagaadh samyak darshan right perception with deep predilection, omniscient lord’s annihilating serene vision. kevali kaa kshaayik samkit
Paramaavasthaa state of salvation,
Paramat sahishnutaa tolerance of other people's opinion; liberality of outlook.
Parameshthi supreme souls.
Parameshwari of or about God; divine. f. the great goddess Parvati.
Paramopexa sanyam utsarg, nischaya naya, sarva parityaag, vitrag chartitra, suddhopyog, passionless conduct, pure consciousness of serenity, nischay ratnatray, absolute triple gems.
Paramotkarsh highest prosperity, rise or glory.
Paramparaa row, line, (unbroken); custom or usage coming down from very old times; tradition, convention, lineage.
Paramparaa tradition, custom, sequence, row, line, (unbroken); custom or usage coming down from very old times; tradition, convention, lineage,
Paraspar mutual, each other, one another, reciprocal,
Paraspar upgraho jivaanaam Each soul is present as instrumental cause for others. Upgrah means nimit kaaran.
Paratantrataa dependancy.
Pari paati lineage.
Paribhaashaa to tell the meaning of the scripture in a right way.
Paribhaashan speaking, talking, discourse, scripture suggesting the real meaning where it belongs, pari means from all angles and bhaashan means to speak, to speak about a subject from all the angles, to describe subject encompassing all angles.
Paribhraman see paraavartan.
Parichay acquaintance; intimacy; familiar intercourse; practice, habit., introduction.
Parichchhed part, division; limit, chapter, paragraph
Parichit sarvagn, pari means from all aspect chit means knowledge. all knower, acquainted, known one.
Parigrah accumulation, possessions, attachment to belongings. two types internal and external. antarang parigrah 14 types and baahya parigrah ten types. please see those section for further details.
Parigrah bhaav emotional attachment
Parigrah parimaan to fix the limits of acquisitions,
Parigrah sangnaa desire for the accumulation of wealth
Parigrah tyaag renunciation of possessions, 9th pratimaa of 11 pratimaas. Pari means samast prakaare tyaag means renunciation.
Parigrah tyaag bhaavanaa sentiments free from attachments.
Parigrah tyaag mahaa vrat renunciation of all worldly materials.
Parigrah tyaag pratimaa model stage of renunciation of possessions except for useful things like things for worshipping etc. These renunciation is for life long.
Parigrah tyaag vrat renunciation of all worldly materials.
Parigrahaa Nandi feel happy with material possessions.
Parigrahaanandi raudra dhyaan deep involvement in the lust of wealth
Parigrahiki kriyaa activity of deep involvement in attachment.
Parigray tyaag anuvrat limitation in ten specific special kind of possessions. These ten things are: agricultural land, houses, cash money and silver, gold and ornaments, cow etc animals, food grains, male servants, female servants, clothes etc, cooking utensils etc.
Parihaar doing away with, removal, (of difficulties or troubles), rejecting the evil, expulsion, expiation, repudiation, abandonment of bad.
Parikshaa test, examination. Pari means from all angles and iksh means to know, that means to know a thing from all angles.
Parikshaa Mukh Creation of Acharya Manikyanandiji written in later half of 8th century.
Parimaan magnitude, quantitative, measure
Parimaan hin dimension less
Parimaapak making to measure,
Parimaatru measurer,
Parimal fragrance, eviction, coition, pervaded, perfumed,
Parimandal circular, measure of an atom, decorating, ornament,
Parimandaltaa circularity,
Parimandit adorn all around,
Parimard rubbing, grinding, destruction, embrace,
Parimardak rubbing, crushing, grinding,
Parimarsh friction, contact, reflection परिमर्श
Parimarsh envy, dislike, परिमर्ष
Parimit measured, according to need, not more than required, finite, limited, restricted,
Parinaam mode, condition, thought activity, change of modification, physical condition, end; fruit, result; consequence; transformation, change; maturity, Changeability, disintegration of previous mode and originate of the present mode is known as transformation, parinaam. परिणामः अकारान्त पुल्लिंग शब्द है पुरुषार्थ प्रधान भाव इसमे भाव वाचक प्रत्यय है। परिणाम में घञ प्रत्यय होने से पुल्लिंग हि होगा. पिर शब्द उपसर्ग है धातु नम् है और घञ प्रत्यय होने से नमः हुआ परिणाम शब्द हुआ अर्थ परिवर्तन, रूपान्तर. घञ प्रत्यय वाले शब्द पुल्लिंग हि होते है
Parinaam lakshan kriyaa modification is the intrinsic property of that mode,
Parinaamaatmak sansaar The altered activity of inclination of attachment and aversion and also realms of existence like human etc is known as parinaamaatvak sansaar, transforming mundane existence
Parinaami resulting; consequential, of consequential, of resultant nature, dynamic, parinaam rupe nipajyaa karvu te, soul substance, modifier,
Parinaami lakshan intrinsic property of a substance.
Parinaamya parinaam shakti knower and knowable power.
Parinaman transformation, fructification, in the soul the pure activity or the altered activity of inclination of attachment and aversion and also realms of existence like human etc is known as parinaman. word parinaman is used as common action for all six universal substances. परिणमन अकारान्त नपुंसकलिंग शब्द सामान्य क्रिया, 6 द्रव्यो कि क्रिया के लिये उपयोग किया जाता
Parinaman hetutva instrumental cause in the modification of a substance.
Parinamanshil nature of getting transformed.
Parinati modification, change occurring from previous mode to present one, transformation इकारान्त स्त्रीलिंग शब्द क्रिया है। परिणति शब्द स्त्रीलिंग है मूल धातु नम्, पिर उपसर्ग, क्तिन् प्रत्यय लगने से नम् धातु का नतिः शब्द हुआ. परि+नतिः = परिणति अर्थ परिवर्तन, रूपान्तर, विकास, पूर्णता. प्रत्यय की आधार से पुलिन्ग स्त्रीलिंग या तो नपुंसकलिंग तय होता है प्रत्यय के अनुसार शब्दो के लिङग का नधिार्र किया जाता है
Parinati rup from transformation perspective, from modification perspectives,
Paripaati custom, usage; rule; method; manner, style; order, sequence; class, same as santati see santati.
Pariprekshya perspectives.
Paripurna quite full; perfected.
Parishaha afflictions, hardships. monk withstands 22 such afflictions. They are: 1: Kshudhaa parishaha: even with intense hunger not to take food 2: Trushaa parishaha: even with intense thirst not to drink 3: Sheet parishaha: cold. suffers with intense cold 4: Ushna parishaha: heat. suffers with intense heat 5: Dans masak parishaha: mosquito etc bug bites dans masak, not to have disturbance by gadflies and mosquito bites 6: Charyaa parishaha: walking with bare feet charyaa, 7: Nagnataa parishaha: to put up with nakedness with sense of equanimity, 8: Arati parishaha: distaste arati, he withstands with equanimity any of the distaste, 9: Stri parishaha: not to look at woman stri, not to get attracted to woman, 10: Nishadya parishaha: seating in certain yoga posture in uncomfortable places like crematory, garden or lonely place nishadhya, no wavering in sitting position in any uncomfortable places, 11: Sayyaa parishaha: sleeping in uncomfortable ground like sand etc, sayyaa. 12: Aakrosh parishaha: wrong faith person does disservice by insulting monk aakrosh, harsh words, 13: Vadha parishaha:-to have equanimity when some one threatens or beats. 14: Yaachyaa parishaha:- begging without exhibiting an attitude of cringing or arrogance to adopt the career of begging just with a view to enabling oneself to carry out religious tasks, 15: Alaabh parishaha:-In spite of begging one does not receive the thing desired then to treat this non receipt as a greater penance than that earlier receipt and thus to remain content with the situation. 16: Rog parishaha:-disease. not to get agitated when attacked with any disease. 17: Tran sparsh-To withstand the sharpness and harshness of dry grass etc while sleeping. 18: Mal parishaha:not to get disgusted with the dirt accumulating on the body and perspiration etc and not to expect to take shower etc. 19: Satkaar purashkaar parishaha: not to get puffed up with the honor bestowed up on him is satkaar and also not to get honored and not to feel worried is purashkaar. He withstands both the events. 20: Pragnaa parishaha: not to feel arrogant in having miraculous intellect and not to feel dejection not having sharp intellect. 21: Agnaan parishaha: not to feel arrogant at one’s special knowledge of scriptural texts and not to despise oneself when not in possession of such knowledge. 22: Adarshan parishaha: when on account of not being able to see things subtle and supra sensuous to one s if the renunciation practiced by one so far was all futile then to cultivate faith characterized by sense of discrimination and to remain joyful even in a situation like that is known as adarshan parishaha.
Parishaha jaya conquest of affliction by endurance
Parishpandan to keep on vibrating. e.g. alma pradesho nu parishpandan, vibratory activity of the soul’s space points.
Parivartan see paraavartan.
Parivartan end of yuga or age; change; revolution; act of revolving; inversion.
Parivartanaa repetition of gained knowledge
Parmaarth highest truth, ultimate reality, transcendental reality, paramarth means best of all substances means shuddhaatmaa, benevolence,
Parmaarth ras rup soul with transcendental reality.
Parmaarth Shrut Kevali With sacred knowledge shrut gnaan when one knows eternal true nature of self then he is known as knowing masters of scriptures from ultimate reality perspectives parmaarth shrut kevali
Parmaarth tatva supreme element, shuddha upyoga
Parmaatma bhaavanaa path to salvation, ultimate state of super sensuous bliss,
Parmaatma darshan path to salvation, ultimate state of super sensuous bliss,
Parmaatma swarup path to salvation, ultimate state of super sensuous bliss,
Parmaatmaa god, supreme god, transcendental self, seat of supreme soul.
Parmaatmaa transcendental self.
Parmaatmaa swarup natural state of transcendental self.
Parmesthi supreme soul
Parox Avishad pratibhaas is known as parox. Impure manifestation of a thing is known as parox: over here the word Parox is lakshya aim and avisad praatibhaas impure manifestation is the lakshan distinguishing feature.
Parox indirect
Parox gnaan vaadi knowledge is known by some thing else.
Parox gyaan sensory cognition, indirect knowledge, impure knowledge, avishad gnaan. The knowledge which occurs with the help of alien things like physical senses etc is known as indirect knowledge. There are five divisions of this paroksha gnaan. Memory, smaran, recognition pratyabhignaan, logic tark, inference anumaan and scripture aagam.
Parox Praman indirect knowledge, knowledge of soul from upatt and anupatt that means knowledge of soul gathered from senses, mind, light, discourses etc. for example, scriptural proof (agam praman), and omniscient’s preaching (sarvagna ni vani) are parox praman. There are five divisions of this paroksha gnaan. Memory, smaran, recognition pratyabhignaan, logic tark, inference anumaan and scripture aagam.
Partantrataa dependency,
Paryaapt jiv This type of knowledge is without any obstruction from Shrut Gnaanaavarniyaa karma. There is no destruction and therefore Omniscient knowledge Keval Gnaan is called Akshar. Ksharan means destruction. Akshar means non destruction. The infinitesimal part anantmo bhaag of it is known as paryaay matignaan. This knowledge is also without any obstruction and is indestructible. niraavaran and avinaashi
Paryaaptak One who has been completed through all the resultant powers is called fully developed (Paryaaptak).
Paryaapti Kind of capacity to develop, development, completion, the gaining by the soul of the capability to develop fully the characteristics of the body in which it incarnates. Here the food particles (ahar vargana), speech particles (bhasha vargana), mind particles (mano vargana), senses particles (indriya vargana), body particles (sharir vargana), and respiratory particles (swashochchhwas vargana) are able to give the soul the power to make a proper body and senses in their fullest form of development. They are six in numbers: 1. Food power (Aahaar paryaapti)-the soul has the capacity to act as an instrumental cause in collecting food particles in the form of large quantities around the soul and also to liquify them. 2. Body power (Sharir paryaapti)-The food particles, which were collected in quantities, are now transformed into bones, etc, body parts. The liquefied portion is converted as blood and fluid parts of the body. 3. Senses power (Indriya paryaapti)-the food particles collected are now transformed into specific senses. 4. Respiratory power (Swaashochchhwaas paryaapti)-The soul becomes an instrumental cause in converting food par-ticles into the respiratory organs and functions. 5. Speech power (Bhaashaa paryaapti)-The soul becomes an instrumental cause in the food particles becoming converted to speech particles. 6. Mind power (Manah paryaapti)-the soul becomes an instrumental cause in the transformation of material particles into specific mind particles. These particles sit as eight petals at the heart. One now has a mind as well as the ca-pacity to think. One who has been completed through all the resultant powers is called fully developed (Paryaaptak). Soul, who initiated the powers to develop, but has not yet completed the development is called the possessor of the power to accomplish complete development (Nirvutya aparyaaptak). Living being has capacity to develop the associative body. When all paryaapti are done, it is called Nirvrutt paryaaptak living being. One who has not completed even one power and who will be dead in 1/18 part of the respiration is determined incapable of development (Labdhya paryaaptak) One who cannot accomplish any of the powers and who dies before any development is called undeveloped power.-aparyaapti The living being who completes all his paryaapti is called paryaapt living being. All these powers last for intra-indian hour (Antar muhurt) and each power also lasts an intra-indian hour. First to second to third, etc, powers last for an increasing time of an intra-indian hour. For example, the first has a smaller time than the second, etc. All the powers start exactly at the same time; however, the completion of each occurs consecutively. One sense living beings have 4 and two to five sense beings have 5 and five sense living being with mind has 6 paryaapti.
Paryaapti kaal time period antarmuhurt required for the completion of 6 paryaapti. Paryaapti naam karma a type of physique making karma causing complete development of body, name karma for completion, That which causes complete development of the organs and capacities is the name karma of completion. It is six kinds taking molecules to form the body, development of the body, development of the sense organs, development of respiratory organs, development of the vocal organ and development of brain.
Paryaapti nirvrutti labdhi development finished, attained,
Paryaapti purn apurna development complete incomplete.
Paryaay modification, modes, present condition, one which has obtained variations from all angles is known as paryaay. equivalent, synonymous, word; equivalent; alternative; method, way; contrivance, trick; excuse; sort, kind ; order, sequence; property of a substance or its effect; [math.] identity. पर्याय = परि समन्तात भेदमेति गच्छतीति पर्यायः, सर्व तरफ थी भेद ने प्राप्त होय ते पर्याय,
Paryaay bhut avasthaa swarup, nature of its own modifications.
Paryaay buddhi modes as object of vision. modal vision, view point of wrong believer.
Paryaay drasti modes as object of vision. modal vision, view point of wrong believer.
Paryaay gnaan out of 20, a type of scriptural knowledge. This is seen in subtle form of lowest living being. It is present in labdh paryaaptak living beings. This is without scriptural knowledge obstructive karma. Paryaay Gnaan. This knowledge is present in the extremely fine lowest form of living beings sukshmaa nigodiyaa Labdh
Paryaay gnaan niraavaran knowledge related to modes and is without any obstacle.
Paryaay mudh infatuated in modes, infatuated in modal perspectives.
Paryaay naya a view point pertaining to know the soul in subtle form
Paryaay pane modal nature.
Paryaay samaas a part of scriptural knowledge pertaining to word knowledge,
Paryaay vaachi synonymous, similar.
Paryaay vaachi synonymous.
Paryaay vaan matter with particular form or mode, substance with vyanjan paryaay.
Paryaay vyanjan explicit gross mode,
Paryaayaansh origination and cessation of modes of a substance.
Paryaayaarthic chakshu a type of perception related to nature of matters,
Paryaayaarthik naya relative aspect, modification point of view, The partial point of view knowing from modal aspect, relative aspect. There are six divisions of Paryaayaarthik naya: १: Anaadi Nitya Paryaayaarthik Naya २: Saadi Nitya Paryaayaarthik Naya ३: Satta Nirpex Anitya Shuddh Paryaayaarthik Naya ४: Satta Saapex Anitya Ashuddh Paryaayaarthik Naya ५: Karmopaadhi Nirpex Anitya Shuddh Paryaayaarthik Naya ६: Karmopaadhi Saapex Anitya \Ashuddh Paryaayaarthik Naya १: अनादि नित्य पर्यायार्थिक नय २: सादि नित्य पर्यायार्थिक नय ३: सत्ता निरपेक्ष अनित्य शुद्ध पर्यायार्थिक नय ४: सत्ता सापेक्ष अनित्य अशुद्ध पर्यायार्थिक नय ५: कर्मोपाधि निरपेक्ष अनित्य शुद्ध पर्यायार्थिक नय ६: कर्मोपाधि सापेक्ष अनित्य अशुद्ध पर्यायार्थिक नय
Paryaayatva nature of modes.
Paryapt naam karma The fruition of karma which is responsible for creation of all paryaapti is called paryaapt naam karma.
Paryushan pari means from all direction ushan means to burn, to burn all eight karma, or to stay closure i.e. meditation, swadhyay etc. Upshaman means to suppress our toxic emotions.
Paschaattap repentance, remorse; penitence; regret.
Pashyanti with self experience, anubhavshil.
Pat curtain,
Patit fallen, sinful
Patit Paavan purifier of the wicked or sinners; God
Paurusheya relating or derived from or made by man, human, human action, work of man, human nature or origin, manliness, manly strength, heroism,
Paushadh vrata monkhood exposure vow,
Pavitra pure, clean; holy, sacred.
Paxaatikraant soul does not have feeling of attachment and aversion and to experience the true nature of the soul is paxaatikraant and that is the path to salvation. आत्मा में कम नहीं है राग नहीं है या इस संबंध में कोई विकल्प नहीं करना ऐसे विकल्प भी निर्विकल्प अनुभूति में बाधक है। अतः चैतन्य रस का वेदन ही पक्षातिक्रांत दशा है और यही मोक्ष मार्ग है
Paxpaat partiality, partisanship,
Pinchhi whisk of the softest peacock feathers.
Pind lump, ball; ball of cooked rice given as offering to the deceased or manes; body.
Pindastha dhyaan Procedural meditation on soul with different concepts. One meditates by taking help from physical body is known as pindasth dhyaan. Meditating in the nature of the innate eternal soul substance is pindasth dhyaan. When one contemplates his true nature with the omniscient lord then it is pindasth dhyaan. With this pindasth meditation, one tries to concentrates on the nature of the self. For example, one contemplates on the nature of the self with that of Omniscient Lord; In the body to witness the shape of the universe etc. They are five types: Paarthiv, Aagneyi, Maaruti, Vaaruni, Tatva Rupvati, types of five dhaarnaa concepts are there: 1: Paarthiv Dhaaranaa: to imagine the ocean of milk of the middle world, and then there is a giant lotus of jambu dwip and in the center there is mount mere and there is a throne on top of it and there the soul is sitting. This soul with no inclinations of attachment and aversion-raag dwesh rahit aatmaa. This is paarthiv dhaaranaa of pindasth dhyaan. 2: Aagneyi Dhaaranaa: In this concept one meditates on the umbilicus and thinks about the 16 petals of lotus. He contemplates on sixteen vowels like: अआइईउऊऋलृएऐओऔअंअः And from the center of the seed he meditates on word “arham” “अहं”. Then “ઈ”-“e” he imagines that a flame comes out and this flame burns the inverted eight petals of lotus in the center of the chest. These eight petals represents eight karma. He imagines that the flame burns these eight karma.Then it burns the body and rest of the lotus and thereafter it become quiet now. This is Aagneyi Dhaaranaa. 3: Maaruti (Vaayavi) Dhaaranaa: Now he thinks about the major stormy cyclone which has made the ocean greatly disturbed. The storm which had burnt the lotus and the body takes away the ashes. Now this storm becomes quiet. With this episode the aspirant soul now meditates on mystic syllable of “So-yam” “સોઙયમ” 4: Vaaruni Dhaaranaa: In this concept the aspirant sul meditates up on the cloud with nectar type of rain. He thinks about this type of sky full of rainbow as well as thunder. With the rain now it washes away the ashes collected as a result of burning of body and lotus. He also ontemplates on some mystic syllables. 5: Tatva Rupvati Dhaaranaa: Here aspirant soul meditates on the nature of the pure soul devoid of any matter attached to it. He now meditates on the pure nature of the soul with all its grandeur. In short, there is waking up of all the strength of the soul and as a result the out side negative forces come under control. Now the aspirant soul is progressing towards the shukla dhyaan-supreme and absolute medittion.
Pipal tree kind of tree sacred to Hindus, ficus religiosa.
Pishtpeshan to repeat same thing again and again.
Pithikaa preface, introductory part.
Posaavu be able to spend for, afford; be in demand; be sold off or finished.
Posana nutrition, nourishment; maintenance.
Potaapanu sense of belonging to oneself; self identification; individuality; self consciousness; egotism, apanaapan
Praaan vitality, bio energy, life essentials, life principles, exhaled air, breaths, from absolute point of view the consciousness present in the soul is its vitality, from conventional point of view there are ten vitalities like five senses, mind, speech, body, breathing and age. indriya, man vachan kaayaa, swaashoswaas, aayu., praan is the one through the living beings maintains its life. One sense living has four vitalities touch sense, body, breathing and age, two senses have six including two senses as well as speech, three and four sense living beings have seven and eight vitalities, subhumans of five senses without rationality asgni panchendriya tiryanch have nine and five sense living has all ten vitalities.
Praabhrut gift, present, offering, the scriptures which have been established by Tirthankar bhagwan, jo prakrust arthaat tirthankar ke dwaaraa abhrut arthaat prasthaapit kiyaa gayaa hai voh, a type of scriptural knowledge, 15th part of twenty part scriptural knowledge,
Praachin old, ancient.
Praadoshik kaal The time in which there is element of beginning of night present is known as praadoshik kaal. The time of the later part of the day present near this praadoshik kaal is also known as praadoshik. so it includes time 48 minutes after 12 noon till 48 minutes prior to sunset as well as 48 minutes after sunset to 48 minutes prior to midnight. (see kaalaachaar for further details)
Praadoshiki kriyaa enraging activity, faulty conduct of mind speech and body.
Praadurbhaav appearance; manifestation; coming into existence; outbreak (of epidemic etc.).
Praag abhaav prior non existence.
Praagabhaava antecedent non existence, prior non existence
Praakaraniya one who is performing an act. kaarya karnaaro.
Praamaaniktaa integrity, honesty.
Praamaanya truth, reality, determination to know the object as it is. Two types: when one is acquainted then knows without help from other objects, and when he does not know then need to take help from other objects., authenticity, authority,
Praan vitality. Pramaaniktaa, validity,
Praan asanyam violence of living beings,
Praan ghaat killing of living beings,
Praan ghaatiki hinsaa a type of violence, killing,
Praanaayam control of pran or vital breath.
Praanat the 24th heaven, a type of heavenly angel.
Praapak causing to arrive at, leading or bringing to, procuring, establishing, making valid, procurer,
Praapt obtained, acquired; attained; reached, arrived; present.
Praapt obtained, acquired; attained; reached, arrived; present.
Praaptaay one has already achieved the desired thing.
Praaptavya obtainable, attainable, available, eligible to be obtained, eligible to be acquired, existing, see praapya.
Praaptaye wanting to achieve the desired thing.
Praapti gain, profit; acquisition; income, procurement,
Praapti gain, profit; acquisition; income, procurement,
Praapti gain, profit; acquisition; income.
Praapti kram steps of procurement,
Praapya obtainable, attainable, available, eligible to be obtained, eligible to be acquired, existing, to be obtained, attainable, procurable, suitable,
Praapya Vyaapya any mode occurring in a given substance, whether it is soul or matter is known its vyaapya. This vyaapya is with three things: Praapya, Vikaarya and Nirvarya. The present condition to which a substance accepts is its praapya. This present state got generated from disintegration of the previous mode. Therefore it is known as vikaarya. And this present state is been generated is known as its nirvartya.
Praapya dhruv, constancy, existing, attainable,
Praapya karma easily attainment of object,
Praapya ni praapti procurement from obtainable.
Praasuk faultless, harmless, pure, not having any living being like boiled water.
Praatibh gnaan intuitive knowledge
Praatihaarya eight things heavenly angles keep in front of Tirthankar Bhagwan for His glory. They are sinhaashan, chamar, chatra, dev dundubhi, pusp vrusti, diwya dhwani, bhaa mandal, Ashok vruksh,
Praayashchit atonement, expiation, praay means prakrust, best, supreme, chitt means to aim at the true knowledge and to know it. The supreme thing which is the eternal knowledge that one aims at it and then knows it is known as praayaschit
Praayaychitt expiation, repentance, atonement,
Praayogik things happening in the soul due to instrumental cause, causal, contrived, produced by the effort of human beings, activity of the inclination of attachment, raag ki kriyaa.
Praayogya Labdhi Competency of thought activity. Further, when the previously bonded duration of karmas (excepting age karma) gets reduced to the level of an Antar Koda Kodi Sagaras (within crores into crores Sagaras, i.e., innumerable years) and the duration of fresh bondage of the level of an Antar Koda Kodi Sagaras would have got reduced to its numerable division, that too, right from the start of the time of that Labdhi shall continue getting reduced gradually and the fresh bondage of many of the demeritorious Prakritis (inauspicious karmas) shall be going on ending gradually thus attaining of such a worthy state of thoughts & dispositions is Prayogya Labdhi (competence attainment).
Praayojak experimental,
Praayojak ruddhi experimental attainment,
Praayopagaman death by no service, penitential death
Prabhaa light, luster; pomp; majesty; splendor.
Prabhaa drasti In this stage there is process of speedy evolution of achiever’s personality. There is inner feeling of complete calm. correct inner position, intense liking for concentration, conquest of sex, detachment in action, calm, steady inner flow of psychic enery and bliss. This is also known as dhyaan.
Prabhaav strength; prowess; luster, pomp, majesty; influence; effect, glory, valor, grandeur, influence,
Prabhaavanaa Glorification of religion, Promoting religion. propagation of teaching of jina, publishing the greatness of Jaina doctrines.
Prabhaavit influenced; impressed
Prabhaavshaali powerful; lustrous; effective,
Prabhu powerful complete and strong. one which possesses infinite greatness and is with indivisible power, completely independent substance in which there is no trace of helplessness is known as prabhu.
Prabhutaa ownership; lordship; greatness; divinity, omnipresent.
Prabhutva ownership, mastery; control, supreme sovereignty
Prabhutva shakti independent elegance power, supreme sovereignty
Prabhutva shakti power of the soul due to which it is independent in nature. does not depend on any other substance for its eternal existence. soul is having its own infinite attributes, spreader through innumerable space points and having infinite pure modes. soul is full of infinite greatness, and is having indivisible strength and is completely independently strong. This is known as prabhutva shakti.
Prachaarak propagandist; canvasser
Prachalit current; customary.
Prachur intense.
Prachur bhaav kalank intense stigmatized inclinations.
Prachyuti to disintegrate, vyay.
Pradaayak , giver, offerer
Pradakshinaa circumambulation of idol or object, keeping it to the right.
Pradesh country, territory, land; province, region, (of country); place; its area, space points, the quantity of matter, units, particles, indivisible and inseparable parts of a substance is pradesh, portion of the aakaash space substance obstructed by one individual atom is known as pradesh.
Pradesh bandh quantity of karma bondage
Pradesh bandh amount of karma particles getting bonded.
Pradesh parishpandan vibratory activity of the soul’s space points.
Pradeshatva extension in to space
Pradeshatva gun extension in to space attribute, Dravya paryaay, mode of a substance
Pradhaan The originator, primordial matter, the original source of material world (sankhya)
Pradhaanataa mainly, chiefly, principally,
Pradhvansa abhaava subsequent non existence, post non existence
Pradosh when some one is giving spiritual discourses, that time another person is spiteful and malignant in his attitude towards it. It is spite.
Prafullit full blown, expanded; full of joy, delighted.
Pragat manifested, open; present; evident, manifest; published. adv. openly; publicly, to reach, to attain,
Pragatavu appear, manifest; be born; take fire; be lighted (of lamp, fire). v. t. light; ignite.
Pragnaa great wisdom, intellect, wisdom, reasoning, extra ordinary learning, intuition. The capacity of the knowing self is known as pragnaa. The knowing mode of this pragnaa is known as gnaan.
Pragnaa chhini sharp chisel of knowledge.
Prahar three hours of time, period of three hours; watch.
Prahari watchman.
Prakaar sort, kind, variety; manner, way.
Prakaash Shakti illuminating power, self illuminating,
Prakaashak enlightening; illuminating; publishing. m. publisher.
Prakaashan publishing; published work, publication.
Prakaashavu shine, glow; look nice; become known; come to light. v. t. bring to light; publish.
Prakaashit illuminated,become visible, brought to light, clear, manifest, apparent, evident, displayed, unfolded, discover, illuminated, enlightened, published, promulgated.
Prakaashmaan shining
Prakalp skim, project, arrangements, best behavior,
Prakaran chapter, an act, kaarya.
Prakatavu appear, manifest; be born; take fire; be lighted (of lamp, fire). v. t. light; ignite.
Prakhyaat well known, famous; celebrated
Prakriyaa way or mode of doing; process; doing, deed; chapter, section; [gram.] method of coining or forming words.
Prakrusht great, best, main, principle thing.ultimate, supreme, excellent, specific, particularity, special, peculiar, particular, distinctive,
Prakrusht rup best form, best way, excellent way, specific way, ultimate form,
Prakruti primal nature (sankhya),it is fundamentally active but non conscious. Funda mentally it is the source of universe. It is composite of three constituents called guna. satva rajas tamas,
Prakruti bandh types of material karma bondage e.g. knowledge obscuring etc.
Prakruti bhut swabhaavbhut, having inherent nature,
Prakshepan to add, to add later on, projection, interpolation, kolio, mouthful, morsel, another meaning is to remove, કોળિયો
Prakshin absolutely destroyed,totally worn out; totally exhausted, totally wasted; absolutely weak, invalid.
Pralay kaal time of destruction, annihilation time ; destruction of the whole universe at the end of kalpa.
Pralin intensely engrossed.
Pralobhan strong inducement, temptation
Pramaa valid knowledge, true knowledge, correct notion, to know.
Pramaad negligence. Basically five types and its 15 subtypes. Five main types are: 1: four types of gossip-vikathaa (see Vikathaa for expanded meaning), 2: four types of toxic emotions-chaar kashaay, 3: Five types of objects of senses (panch Indriyo naa vishayo) 4: Sleep 5: Sneh (love, affection)
Pramaad charyaa careless dealings
Pramaan valid source of knowledge, organ of knowledge, comprehensive knowledge, means of valid knowledge, right knowledge (Samyak gnaan), thing is ascertained on the basis of multiple properties then that knowledge is known as pramaan gnaan, valid knowledge is the knowledge which illuminates itself and other things without any obstruction,
Pramaan gnaan right knowledge means determination of nature of a substance. A pramaan takes the whole of real as its subject matter, the knowledge of reality which enlightens the whole of it simultaneously is the pramaan. nayas are the part of pramaan, total comprehension of reality is the knowledge of pramaan type. A pramaan has different taste (essence) from aggregate of nayas, ( panchastikaya verse 675). The negation is preceded by affirmation and vice versa. The knowledge which comprehends the union of these two is the pramaan (panchastikaya verse 665). Acharya Akalanka defines pramaan as follow: its the nature to reveal itself as well as its object. and there is harmony as the true mark of cognition. by which, a substance is getting known is known as pramaan.(Kashay Paahud, JayDhavala book 1, chapter1, stanza 27,) Praman definition: According to Pariksha Mukh Shastra: स्वपूर्वार्थ व्यवशायात्मकम ज्ञानं प्रमाणं अपना और अपूर्वार्थका निश्चयात्मक ज्ञान प्रमाण कहलाता है श्री माणिक्यनंदि स्वाम Chapter 1, sutra 1. Pariksha Mukh. According to Pariksha Mukh, The comprehensive knowledge consists of five things: 1: One should know the self in detail, then only he can know the alien things- SWA. If one does not know the self then he does not know the alien things. So to know the other universal substances it is prerogative that he knows the self first. Then only he can know the alien substances of the universe in their real form. Knowledge has swa par prakaashak swabhaav. Knowledge has nature of knowing the self and alien things. Therefore to start knowing, one has to know the self. The knowledge of self is right knowledge-samyag gnaan. When one directs his attention to the self then he experiences the self and this is swa vyavashaay-determined knowledge of the self. Word Swa refutes the Mimaansak who believe knowledge is always indirect in nature. It also refutes Naiyaayik theory of knowledge occurs due to other knowledge-kaarak saakalya and also of Vaisheshik philosophy of believing in saanikarshvaad-anya gnaan se use graahak maanane waale Naiyaayiko ke kaarak saakalya aur Vaishashiko kaa sannikarshvaad kaa khandan kartaa hai. 2,3: The thing for which there was never been any determination with true knowledge in the past is called APURVAARTH. The thing has to be unprecedented. APURVAARTH-It should be always new in nature. ARTH means it should be present in the universe. It has to be a real substances in the universe-ARTH. a:The thing which was not known before and now is known is known as knowledge of unprecedented thing-apurvaarth. b:The continuous contemplation of knowledge makes object of knowledge as one thing only and therefore it is not unprecedented knowledge. Dhaaraaavaahik gnaan ek hi vastu ko vishay banaataa hai, is liye vah apurvaarth nathi kahaa jaataa. This type of continuous contemplation of knowledge-dhaaraavaahik gnaan-does not help in fruition, in the form of removal of the wrong knowledge.-Dhaaraavaahik gnaan mein agnaan ki nirvrutti rup koi phal nahi paayaa jaataa hai. c:The thing which was known in the past but now there is doubt, illusion or indecision about this thing, then also this knowledge is known as unprecedented knowledge-purva mein jaane hue padaarth mein yadi samaarop arthaat sansay, viparyay aur anadhyavasaan hotaa hai to padaarth apurvaarth ban jaataa hai. For example, one sees something and has doubt, or illusion or indecision about it. He can not make determination whether it is snake or the rope. This knowledge is known as apurvaarth, unprecedented knowledge as there is doubt, illusion and indecision. One can have doubt about body and soul. Whether they are different or the same entity. This is also known as unprecedented knowledge. Even though he may be end up believing wrong way about soul and body to be one only, still it can be said that it is unprecedented knowledge. d: From self perspective-swarup se-or with characteristic form-vishesh rup se-if something is not specific-nischit-then that object is known to be unprecedented one.-swarup se athavaa vishesh rup se jo nischit nahi hai vah sampurn padaarth apurvaarth hai. If one has knowledge of tree but now he knows that this is mango tree. Then this additional knowledge i.e. specific knowledge-vishesh gnaan is known as apurvaarth. The question comes that Arihant and Siddha have Omniscient knowledge and knows every thing of the universe in one moment then where is the new thing in next mode? From time perspective-kaal apexa-He knows that the present mode become past and the future mode becomes present in next moment. This is His newness of knowledge. Word Apurva refutes the dhaaraavaahi gnaan. It refutes the belief of gruhit graahi dhaaraavaahi gnaan ki pramaantaa-acquired form of same knowledge keeps on coming again and again. Arth means the substance which is present in the universe. One can not have knowledge which does not exist in universe e.g the flowers blooming in the sky or the horn of donkey etc. They are apruva-unprecedented but it has to be a thing in universe too. If it is not present in universe then it is not called arth. Arth refutes the Vignaan Adwaitvaad and Chitraa Adwaitvaad. Mimansaa darshan has one branch called Prabhaakar. In every way they believe apurvaarth is only the subject of valid knowledge-sarvathaa apurvaarth ko hi pramaan kaa vishay maante hai. Above paragraph refutes that belief. In Jain philosophy in valid knowledge they believe apurvaarth from certain point of view.-Jain darshan ke pramaan vishaya mein kathanchit apurvaarthtaa swikrut hai. 4: The knowledge has to be judgmental. The knowledge has to have capacity for judgement-VYAVASHAAYAATMAK. It is also known as nischyaatmak gnaan. Wrong believer also has knowledge and he also knows the universal substances but his judgement is wrong. He believes the rope to be the snake. This is apurvaarth-unprecedented knowledge-as there is doubt, illusion and indecision present. But, this is wrong judgement on his part. There is unprecedented knowledge-apurvaarth-but there is no right judgment-no vyavashaayatmak gnaan, it is known as non judgmental knowledge. To know the presence of snake in a rope is unprecedented knowledge-apurvaarth, but it is non judgmental knowledge-anischayaatmak gnaan, avyavashaayatmak gnaan. One has to have correct judgment-vyavashaayatmak-about the knowledge. Therefore the judgmental knowledge-vyavashaayatmak gnaan-has to be with no doubt, illusion or indecision. That is why it is pramaan gnaan. In non judgmental knowledge-avyavashaayatma gnaan-he believes the body to be the soul. Even the Omniscient lords told him that the body and soul are two different things but his judgement regarding body and soul to be the same is very strong judgement even though it is wrong. So the knowledge which is apurva and has arth (knowledge with doubt, illusion and indecision) to it, has to be judgmental-vyavashaayatmak-too. Otherwise it is not valid knowledge-pramaan gnaan. Is it rope or snake, is body and soul are different or same? One has to have judgment regarding these facts. Wrong believer has apurva knowledge of the substance of the universe but has wrong judgmental knowledge. He does have judgment but is wrong one. He believes the rope to be snake and body and soul to be the same. So the judgmental knowledge will rightfully know that the snake is not rope or vice versa. He will have judgmental knowledge that body and soul are two separate entities. Wrong believer’s knowledge is with doubt-sansay, viparyay illusion and with indecision-anadhyavashaay. Therefore his knowledge is not judgmental. Buddhisht philosophy believes that the inference-anumaan-is the reason for making determination of an object and believes that the direct knowledge-pratyaksh is non judgmental-pratyaksha ko nirvikalpa yaani anischayaatmak maante hai. They believe that when the liberation occurs then there is no knowledge. As the knowledge is with reflective thoughts, there is absence of reflective thoughts in liberation. There is no knowledge so there is no reflective thoughts. They believe that in liberation there is no thought process. There is nirvikalpataa only. Jain philosophy believes that all the parts of comprehensive knowledge is the reason for making judgment for knowledge of self and others-sarva pramaan ko swa aur par kaa nischya karne waalaa maanaa hai. According to Jains, there is presence of knowledge forever in liberation state. This knowledge is with its abstraction property-vikalpaatmak panu-. (Ref: personal swadhyay with Pandit Yogeshji, the author of Pariksha mukh book, Aliganj, India) Therefore Vyavashaayaatmak word refutes the nirvikalpavaad-anischayaatmak-of Buddhisht. 5: The capacity for judgement occurs only in the knowledge. That is why knowledge-GNAAN is in itself the basis for integrity-honesty-Gnaan hi praamaaniktaa kaa aadhaar honaa chaahiye. The use of word “Gnaan” refutes the sannikarsh belief of Naiyaayik and kaarak saakalyavaad of Vaisheshiks. With knowledge one gets happiness and removes his misery and that is why knowledge is considered as pramaan-comprehensive knowledge. The removal of unhappiness is not the work of the knowledge attribute. It simply knows the nature of happiness or misery. The endurance of the feeling occurs in the conduct attribute-chaaritra guna. The knowledge which knows the object without sanshay (doubt-e.g. doubt about silver and shell.), viparyay (illusion e.g to think that shell is silver.) and anandhyavashaay (uncertainty, inconclusiveness e.g. to know whether he is touching the grass while walking.)-(ref: parisksha mukh sutra 2) is known as pramaan gnaan (pariksha mukh sutra 2) To know a substance the associated knowledge is known as pramaan gnaan. (darshan shastra definition, epistemology perspective) Position of knowledge-gnaan pad-is given here to refute ignorance type of sannikarsh and kaarak saakalya and also to have knowledge occurring due to senses. Sannikarsh means knowledge occurring with association of physical senses and objects only. Pramaan means with which there occurs authentic knowledge ( pramiti). Pramaan gnaan is of two types: 1:Pratyaksha-direct cognition 2:parox-indirect cognition Pratyaksha pramaan-The knowledge which has clarity is known as direct cognition. One is acquiring direct knowledge with the support of one’s own soul i.e. atma na asraye. The knowledge which is clear, pure and transparent is known as pratyaksha pramaan. Vishad gnaan ne pramaan gnaan kahe chhe. The direct knowledge’s purity can be known with experience only. Pratyaksha pramaan ki nirmaltaa anubhav se jaani jaati hai. Over here word “vishad” is used to refute Buddhism philosophy which believes that the direct knowledge can also be unclear-aspasht or avishad in nature. The word “vishad” is also used to make sure one does not include knowledge occurring with senses and light-indriya ane prakaash. Characteristics of pratyaksha pramaan: (According to Akalakdev): The knowledge is clear-vishad and it is without following three faults like: 1:Non comprehensive fault-Avyapti. 2:The fault of Including what is not intended to be included within a proposition-Ativyapti, and. 3: An improbable fault-Ashambhav. During soul’s self experience all the reflective thoughts about valid knowledge, partial point of view and analysis of truth-pramaan, naya and nikshepa disappear. Atmaanubhti ke samay par pramaan, naya nikshepa ke vikalpa kaa vishraam hotaa hai. Pratyaksha Pramaan gnaan has two divisions: 1: Saamvyavahaarik Pratyaksha Pramaan-direct knowledge in conventional sense: One which knows a thing clearly but partially with the help of senses and mind is known as saamvyavahaarik pratyaksha gnaan. For example, I did see clearly that person with my own eyes. Over here one must not include knowledge occurring due to a matter or the light. Because they are the object of knowledge and can not be the reason for knowledge. The matter can not be the reason for knowledge as they both do not have positive and negative concomitance-anvay vyatirek sambandh. smoke is there because there is fire-anvay-positive concomitance-and there is no fire and therefore there is no smoke-vyatirek-negative concomitance. An object does not have positive or negative concomitance with other object then it can not be its reason-jiskaa jiske saath anvay vyatirek sambandh nahi hota hai, vah uskaa kaaran nahi hotaa hai. There are hairs on the top of the head but one does not have knowledge for it and there is no mosquito on the hair but when there is wind blowing, one thinks of mosquito on his hair. This example is the example of absence of positive and negative concomitance-anyavy vyatirek kaa abhaav. Therefore object can not be the reason for knowledge. Similar way, during day light, owl cannot see and during night time in dark, he can have knowledge. This also proves that the light is not the reason for knowledge. Furthermore, if matter is the reason for the knowledge then when that matter is not present then knowledge should not happen. But that is not the case. In the same token if light is the reason for knowledge then in darkness at night no one should have any knowledge. But this is not true, as there is knowledge that here is darkness. So with these two examples, one can definitely say that matter-object and light can not be the reason for knowledge. Yes, they could be the object of knowledge, but one certainly can not say that knowledge occurs due to matter-object or with light. Knowledge does not occur due to a thing but still the knowledge illuminates the thing just like the lamp illuminates the objects. The direct knowledge in conventional sense-saamvyavaahaarik pratyaksha gnaan-is part of cognitive knowledge-mati gnaan. Mati gnaan by itself is considered as indirect knowledge as there is need or senses and mind. The knowledge occurs due to self and not due to object. This fact refutes the theory of Buddhisht who believe that the knowledge occurs only due to presence of object. 2:Paarmarthic pratyaksha-transcendental knowledge: One, which knows the thing, clearly, without any help from instrumental cause is known as paarmaarthic pratyaksha. For example, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscient knowledge. The clairvoyance and telepathy knowledge are known as partial transcendental knowledge-vikal pratyaksha and omniscient knowledge is known as perfect transcendental knowledge.-sakal pratyaksha. Any knowledge if having obstruction like knowledge obscuring karma then there is limitation. Furthermore when knowledge is dependent on physical senses then there is also limitation due to capacity of the sense organ only. Therefore this type of knowledge is called indirect. Direct knowledge is super sensuous and is without any obstruction. Parox Pramaan-indirect knowledge: For benefiting the self, the knowledge takes help from other knowledges then it is known as parox pramaan-indirect knowledge. Indirect Knowledge-paroksha pramaan: Knowledge obtained with the help of senses and mind is known as indirect knowledge. The knowledge in which there are direct knowledge etc are instrumental cause is known as indirect knowledge. This indirect knowledge keeps expectation from preceding valid knowledges.-Parox pramaan apni utpatti mein purva varti pramaan gnaano ki apexaa rakhte hai. Prior to memory (smaran), there is retention of knowledge of an object (pratyaksha gnaan) is present. Therefore direct knowledge is the instrumental cause for memory. In recognition type of indirect knowledge ( pratyabhi gnaan) there is need for direct knowledge as well as memory. Because the object which was seen before, comes in memory and then one decides that definitely that is the same object seen before. This is recognition knowledge-pratyabhi gnaan. In logic (tark) there is need for direct knowledge, memory and recognition. As the teacher saw the smoke in the mountain, he told his student that does he remember the smoke associated with the fire in the kitchen? By listening this, the student remembers the smoke and fire in the kitchen. He then tells the teacher that definitely he remembers the smoke and fire in the kitchen. And this smoke on the mountain is the same. In this example, first there is direct knowledge of the smoke on the mountain occurred. Thereafter he had memory of the smoke from kitchen. Then he recognized the similarity of the smoke of mountain and kitchen (saadrashya pratyabhi gnaan). Then he makes decision that wherever there is smoke there has to have presence of fire. This is called logic. So here direct knowledge, memory and recognition all three are needed. After this logical knowledge he draws the inference ( anumaan) on the mountain, there has to have fire present. In this inferential knowledge there is presence of logic etc all four prior knowledges. In scriptural knowledge there is presence of word and one comes to conclusion that this is the meaning of the word. Memory is also present. Therefore in these five indirect knowledges keep expectation from preceding valid knowledges.-Pancho parox pramaan apni utpatti mein purva varti pramaan gnaano ki apexaa rakhte hai. There are five divisions of this paroksha gnaan: 1: Memory,-smaran, 2: recognition-pratyabhignaan, 3: logic-tark, 4: inference-anumaan and 5: scripture-aagam. 1: Memory-smaran: Smruti:The knowledge which occurs from manifestation from faculty of recollection from past is known as memory.-sanskaar ki pragataa se hone waale gnaan ko smaran kahate hai. Thing which was known in the past and now one remembers it, is known as memory. The direct knowledge is the instrumental cause for memory, as there is need for retention of known object-dhaaranaa gnaan is prerequisite for memory. Therefore the direct knowledge is the instrumental cause for memory. For example, I knew Devdatt from before and now I remember the same person. This is memory. Memory illuminates the past experience as its subject. 2: Recognition-pratyabhi gnaan:With the illustration one makes decision about a thing. For example, by seeing a thing in present time, he says that this is the same thing that I had seen in the past. To connect memory with the present thing is known as recognition-pratyabhi gnaan. For recognition, one has to have need for memory and direct knowledge. There are five parts to it. 1: ekatva-oneness: This is same as before. This has to be Devdatt only 2: Saadrashya-similar: this is similar to one I knew before. The roz is similar as cow. 3: Vilakshan: different: this is different than what I knew from before. This buffalo is different than cow. 4: Prati yogi-counterpart: by looking at a some thing nearer, one makes determination that the other substance is away from this thing is the example of prati yogi pratyabhi gnaan. 5:-saamaanya pratyabhi gnaan: general nature of recognition By looking at a tree, one remembers the general nature of the tree and now he ends up knowing that this is the tree. In the recognition-pratyabhignaan-there is experience and this experience makes the present mode as its subject. Jain philosophy is only the one which accepts recognition knowledge-pratyabhi gnaan as part of comprehensive knowledge-pramaan gnaan. Buddisht etc philosophies do not believe in recognition knowledge as part of comprehensive knowledge. 3: Logic-Tark-Vyaapti gnaan: It means deliberation on an unknown thing to discern its real nature. It consists of seeking reasons in support of some supposition to the exclusion of other suppositions. It is employed whenever a doubt is present about the specific nature of anything. By looking at a sign, one says that “over here the thing with the same sign has to present”. To achieve a thing-saadhya-remedy for achieving-saadhan-is required. The remedy-saadhan-is not there if there is nothing to achieve-Saadhan rup vastu saadhy rup vastu hovaa thi j hoy chhe. Saadhya rup vastu nahi hova thi saadhan rup vastu pan nathi hoti. For example for presence of smoke presence of fire is essential and if there is no fire then there is no smoke. By seeing smoke one knows that fire has to be here. Where there is no fire, there is no smoke. For logic, one needs help of direct knowledge, memory and recognition. Tark is also known as vyaapti gnaan-invariable concomitance, universal pervasion between middle term and major term. For example: a student and teacher are walking and saw smoke coming from mountain. Teacher tells student, that “do you remember, that in your kitchen when there is smoke there is always fire present?” The student remembers that event. And then he says, “yes, sir, this smoke in the mountain is the same type.” In this example, first there was smoke seen directly in his kitchen. Then he remembers it and then he recognizes it to be the same kind- saadrashya pratyabhi gnaan. Thereafter he makes determination that wherever there is smoke, there is fire, because without fire there is no smoke. This is known as vyaapti gnaan or tark or logic. (vyaapti gnaan means from a specific experience one refers to the general thing). Vyaapti ke gnaan ko tark kahate hai. Vyaapti means inherent relationship. e.g. Fire and smoke have inherent relationship. While fire and pot do not have inherent relation. Vyaapti gnaan means invariable concomitance, universal pervasion between middle term and major term. The exquisite efficiency-saadhaktam-for removing the wrong knowledge regarding the means-saadhan-and the object to be achieved-saadhya-is known as tark. Saadhya ane saadhan sambandh vishayak agnaan ne dur karvaa rup phal maa je saadhaktam chhe tene tark kahe chhe. (Nyay dipika pagee 180) The knowledge which shows the inherent relationship with two things for all the time and in all area-sarva kaal ane sarva desh-is known as tark. In tark, one makes association of saadhan-the means to achieve a thing-with saadhya-things to be achieved. This inherent relationship is known as “tark”-logic. Smoke is seen, then fire has to be there. This is anvay-positive concomitance. If there is no fire, there is no smoke. This is negative concomitance-vyatirek. The instrumental cause for vyaapti gnaan is positive and negative concomitance-vyaapti gnaan kaa nimitt anvay vyatirek maanaa gayaa hai. Avinaabhaav sambandh ko vyaapti bolte hai. Wherever there is inherent relationship, is known as vyaapti- contemporaneity, invariable concomitance, universal pervasion between middle term and major term. What is avinaabhaavi sambandh-inherent relationship? It is present when some thing else is present and some thing else is not present then it is not present. This is inherent relation. For example, wherever there is smoke there is fire and when fire is absent then smoke is absent. Therefore the smoke and fire have avinaabhaavi sambandh-inherent relationship. The knowledge of the inherent relationship-vyaapti ka gnaan-is tark-logic. Saadhya kaa saadhan ke saath jo avinaabhaavi ho, vah gnaan ko vyaapti gnaan kahete hai aur usko tark kahate hai. Fire is the saadhya and smoke is the saadhan. Wherever there is raag there is atmaa. Wherever there is no aatmaa then there is no raag seen. Over here raag has vyaapti with atmaa. Atmaa does not have vyaapti with raag. Smoke has vyaapti-inherent relationship-with the fire. Fire does not have vyaapti with smoke. Fire can be there without smoke too. Soul can be there without raag too. Raag has anvya vyaapti-positive concomitance-with soul. Soul has vyatirek vyaapti-negative concomitance with raag. Where there is no soul, there is no raag. The knowledge of positive and negative concomitance is known as vyaapti gnaan-tark-logic.-Anvay aur vyatirek vyaapti ke gnaan ko tark kahte hai. In Indian philosophy, Jain philosophy is only the one which accepts logic-tark as part of comprehensive knowledge. Because except for logic, there is nothing which can prove the inherent relationship. And logic is only the one which can prove inherent relationship.Therefore one has to accept logic as one of the comprehensive knowledges.-tark ke sivaay pratyakshaadi kisi bhi pramaan se vyaapti kaa nirnay nahi ho saktaa. Tark vyaapti kaa nirnay karne mein purnatah samarth hai. Is liye tark ko pramaan rup mein swikaar karanaa hi padegaa. 4: Inference-Anumaan: Seeing the attributes, one makes the decision about the substance. For example, wherever is knowledge, there is soul. There is fire because there is smoke present. On seeing the smoke on the mountain, now the student makes inference that there should be fire. Therefore in inference-anumaan-one needs direct knowledge, memory, recognition and logic. The knowledge of the things to be achieved (saadhya) occurs with the knowledge of the means present (saadhan), is known as inferential knowledge (anumaan gnaan). Saadhan thi thavaa vaalaa saadhya naa gnaan ne anuman kahe chhe. Smoke is the saadhan and with that one knows the saadhya fire. This is inferential knowledge-anumaan gnaan. Spiritual discipline-saadhan has inherent relationship with the liberation asultimate goal to achieve. This ultimate goal-saadhya-is with three characteristics of :Isht-Beneficial. The thing in which the proponent wants to prove is known as isht-beneficial. If proponent does not want to prove it then it is non beneficial thing. Student needs to understand that there is presence of fire on the hill. The fire is asiddh to him. If one believes anisht as saadhya then there is the fault of taking too much liberty beyond intimacy. anisht ne saadhya maane to atiprasang no dosh aave chhe. In Nyaay dipikaa it is also called abhipret. Abhipret means meant, intended; desired, wished; accepted, approved. It means that it is desirable for proponent to prove. Abhipret vah hai jo vaadi ko siddh karane ke liye abhimat hai. One has to know that the saadhya is isht means beneficial to him. For example, questioner says that he wants to know rose flower. The teacher also knows rose flower. so rose flower is isht for vaadi-. Soul’s inherent nature is super sensuous bliss. This is the fact accepted by proponent. Therefore it is isht to him. To believe the soul to be always permanent-sarvathaa nityapanaa-in nature is not beneficial to Jains. That means it is anisht-non beneficial. :Asiddh-Unestablished reason. The thing which is yet not been proven by any valid knowledge is known as asiddh-unestablished reason. When there is presence of doubt, illusion and indecision ( sanshay viparyay and anadhyavashaay), then only a thing needs to be proven. If there is no doubt, illusion or indecision about the thing then it does not need to be proven. It is self proven thing. This is the nature of word asiddh. Sansay, viparyay aur anadhyavashay padartho ki saadhyataa saabit karne ke liye saadhya ke lakshan mein asiddh pad diyaa gayaa hai.-to prove a substance in which there is suspicion, indecision and inconclusiveness present then to prove the substance there is asiddh characteristics inserted in saadhya. If one believes accomplished thing-prasiddh-, to be saadhya then inference will be useless. Because for accomplishing the achievable thing, one does inference. So prasiddh is the fault.-kaaran ke saadhya ni siddhi maate anumaan karvaamaa aave chhe. So for saadhya, the asiddh unestablished reasoning is the characteristic. The thing is asiddh-unproved-for questioner-prati vaaadi-but it is siddh-accomplished, fully understood-for the person who is answering- vaaadi (speaker).. Prativaadi (listner) is confused and wants to remove his confusion. The teacher-vaadi-has already removed his own confusion. So this is characteristics of asiddh.-unestablished reason. The thing which is asiddh to one, can be explained with the help of tark and anumaan-logic and inference. Because it is siddh to teacher, but is not siddh to the student. So he can be explained with tark and anumaan. He needs to have inference that there is fire on the hill. The fire is asiddh to the student. The teacher explains to him about the inherent relationship of fire and smoke. Now as there is smoke on the hill that means the fire has to be present. Student ends up using this logic and makes his own inference of presence of fire on the hill. In Nyaay Dipikaa it is also known as aprasiddh-unknown. Aprasiddh voh hai jo sandehaadik se yukt hone se anischit hai-The thing is unknown when there is uncertainty due to suspicious etc types of faults. (sansay, viparyay and anandhyavashaay types of faults.) If the saadhya is considered siddh-proven, then there is nothing to prove. So the saadhya has to be asiddh-not proven, not obtained. Jo prasiddh ko saadhya maanaa jaay to anumaan vyarth ho jaayegaa, kyoki saadhya ki siddhi ke liye anumaan kiyaa jaataa hai. If one thinks that the thing which is published is to be achieved then there will be no need for inference, as the inference is used only for fulfillment of the things to be achieved.:Abaadhit-Non contradicted-The thing can be proven as it is unimpeded from direct etc valid knowledges. This is the non contradicted property of saadhya-things to be proven. pratyakshaadik pramaan thi abadhit hovaathi siddh thai shake chhe (baadhit padartho no saadhya panaa ma nishedh karva maate) te abaadhit lakshan chhe. For example, one can not prove the flowers blooming in the space or the horn of donkey. These facts can not be proven. These facts can be impeded by valid type of knowledges. If one says that soul’s inherent nature is with misery and prove it. Then the teacher will say that it is not possible. Because there is no misery in the inherent nature of the soul. This fact of soul having misery as its inherent nature is contradicted from conventional wisdom. Soul is having eternal inherent nature of super sensuous bliss. So soul having inherent nature of misery fact is inappropriate, inconsistent-baadhit. Therefore it can not be proven. The fact which needs to be proven has to be non contradicted from conventional wisdom. If soul has misery as its own true nature then why will he be trying to be misery free? Therefore soul’s inherent nature is never been misery. It is always with super sensuous bliss. They are not baadhit-contradicted from pratyaksha etc pramaans-any valid knowledge.. One which can be proven by having it to be impeded from direct etc pramaan gnaan is called abaadhit. If one believes that obstructiveness is also the nature of saadhya then one has to believe the non warmth also to be the characteristics of fire. But it is not true. So abaadhit is the nature of the saadhya. The rose flower is also pratyaksha pramaanaadi se abaadhit hai. The rose flower is the fact which is without any contradiction from valid knowledge. So it is abaadhit and this is one of the three characteristics of the saadhya. Rose flower is not lok viruddh.-it is not against the conventional wisdom. It is generally known thing in the population. Ref: Nyay dipika third section page 185 hindi, Pariksha mukh page 49 gatha 17-18. According to Nyaay dipikaa, Abaadhit is also called shakya. One which can be proven without any inconsistency with valid type of knowledges-pramaanaadik gnaan-is called shakya.-possible. Yadi ashakya (baadhit) ko saadhya maanaa jaay to agni mein anushnataa aadi bhi saadhya ho jaayegi. If one takes inconsistency (baadhit) as the things to be achieved then one will end up accepting coolness (anushnataa) as the characteristics of fire. Saadhya has to be non bonded with anything else. It does not have to have any dependency on any thing else. To believe the words have nature of inaudibility is directly contradicted-shabd ko ashraavanatva maannaa prayaksha baadhit hai. Words to be considered as permanent is inferentially contradicted-shabd ko nitya maannaa anumaan baadhit hai. The righteous nature to be considered as producing misery in next life is scripturally contradicted-dharma ko parlok mein dukdaayi maannaa aagam baadhit hai. To say that “My mother is infertile woman” is self spoken words contradictoriness.-meri maataa vandhyaa hai eisaa kahnaa swa vachan baadhit hai.If above three things are not understood then there are three faults as follow: 1: Anisht-non beneficial-it will give atiprasang dosh. fault of taking too much liberty beyond intimacy. 2: Prasiddh-manifested thing-anumaan vyarth ho jaayegaa. Inference will be useless. 3: Baadhit-inappropriate, inconsistent-Agni mein anushnataa aadi kaa dosh aayegaa-in the fire non warmth etc faults will occur. Above three are saadhyaabhaas.-fallacy for things to be achieved. Because with these three fallacies can not become the subject of instrument for achieving ultimate goal. Ref: Nyaay dipika and Pariksha mukh. From a sign-ling-one ends up knowing the one which is having a sign-lingi. From knowing smoke( ling) one knows the fire (lingi). This is inference-anumaan. For all practical purpose th
Pramaan Mimaanshaa epistemology, description regarding seven naya, Theory of knowledge especially with regard to its methods, validity and scope. Epistemology is the investigation offering what distinguishes justified belief from opinion
Pramaan phal the result of comprehensive knowledge direct one is to remove one’s ignorance state agnaan kaa saakshaat naash. The conventional result of pramaan is discarding and accepting certain thing, and also to have indifference. pramaan kaa paramparaa phal tyaag, grahan our udaasintaa hai.
Pramaan saptabhangi measure pertaining to seven combinations. with one attribute, to know it is naya saptabhangi. With one attribute to know the whole substance is pramaan saptabhangi. Ek Dharma Dwaaraa, Ek Dharm Juo Te Naya Saptabhangi Chhe. Ek Dharm Dwaaraa Aakhaa Dravya Ne uo Te Pramaan Saptabhangi Chhe.
Pramaan swarth/paraarth valid knowledge own gauge/other gauge (criterion, means of estimating something.)
Pramaanaabhaas with wrong knowledge one can not make determination of a nature of a substance is known as pramaanaabhaas, pseudo organ of knowledge Pramaanaabhaas Fallacy of comprehensive knowledge: This definition of comprehensive knowledge has five parts to it: Swa knowledge of the self. Apurvaarth-unprecedented knowledge of the substances present in the universe. Vyavashaayatmak-knowledge has to be judgmental. Gnaan-knowledge GNAAN is in itself the basis for integrity-honesty-Gnaan hi praamaaniktaa kaa aadhaar honaa chaahiye.Anything against this definition is fallacy of comprehensive knowledge. So the fallacy of comprehensive knowledge is: 1: The knowledge which does not know the self is non self experienced knowledge-aswasamvidit. This knowledge does not make determination of the self. 2: The knowledge which was known in genuine form-yathaarth gnaan-in the past and now to know the same knowledge again is known as perceived knowledge-gruhit gnaan. In this knowledge, there is no removal of ignorance and therefore it is fallacy of the comprehensive knowledge. Therefore continuous contemplation of knowledge-dhaaraavaahik gnaan is fallacy of comprehensive knowledge. 3:The knowledge with abstraction-vikalpaatmak gnaan is part of the comprehensive knowledge. When one believes-like Buddhist-that in liberated state there is absence of knowledge and that is why there is absence of abstraction-vikalpa, then it is the fallacy of comprehensive knowledge. Absence of abstraction-nirvikalpataa-is the fallacy of comprehensive knowledge. Nature of the knowledge is always with abstraction. 4: From certain perspectives even the knowledge with doubt, illusion and indecision is known as unprecedented knowledge-apurvaarth, but is not the judgmental knowledge-avyayashaayatmak gnaan. In judgmental knowledge-vyavashaayatmak gnaan-there is no doubt, illusion or indecision. Therefore knowledge with doubt, illusion and indecision is the fallacy of the comprehensive knowledge. स्वपूर्वार्थ व्यवशायात्मकम ज्ञानं प्रमाणं अपना और अपूर्वार्थका निश्चयात्मक ज्ञान प्रमाण कहलाता है श्री माणिक्यनंदि स्वामी विरचित परीक्षा मुख शास्त्र Chapter 1, sutra 1. Pariksha Mukh
Pramaanaantar another means of proof.
Pramaanaantar another means of proof.
Pramaaniktaa authenticity
Pramaataa knower, learned one in subject matter, The soul is knower, doer and enjoyer illumines self and others, pramaan dwaaraa pramey ke gyaan ko praapt karne waalaa chetan purush.
Pramaataa, pramaan and prameya pramaan means all knower substance, the doer of the knowledge, the soul, pramaan means knowledge mode and premeya means the object of knowledge which is substance, attributes and modes all combined together. Jaananaaro jaane ane janaay. The soul knows and also is getting known in the mode.
Pramaatri one who has a correct notion or idea, authority, performer of mental operation resulting in to true conception,
Pramatt The passion karma and quasi passions karma that destroy the soul’s ‘passionless perfect conduct’ (Yathakhyat charitra) are called the perfect conduct preventing passions and quasi passions karma. One with the fruition of these karma is known as being in pramatt state. negligent, careless; insolent; intoxicated. non vigilant of duties. To be non attentive in self.
Pramey kamalmaartand the creation of this book is from Prabhaachandraachaarya (from 10th to 11th century). He did critics of the book of Maanikyanandi’s Parikshaa mukh.
Prameya object to be known completely, subject envisaged in pramaan, to be ascertained or proved, provable, that of which a correct notion should be formed, an object of certain knowledge, thing to be proved or topic to be discussed. Prameya means knowledge of self and alien belongings. swa par ne jaanavu.
Prameyatva shakti due to this power, the self gets illuminated within, aa shakti thi swa gneya janaay chhe. Every substance has its own prameyatva shakti and due this the self gets illuminated within. Soul has knowledge and that is why soul knows its prameyatva shakti. Every substance’s power works for that particular substance only.
Pramiti Results of authentic knowledge, pramaan phal, act of judging, gnapti, correct notion, right conception, knowledge gained or established by pramaan or proof, inference, analogy,
Pramitikaran pramaan, authentic knowledge.
Pramod joy, delight.
Pramod bhaavnaa to be delighted witnessing some one’s virtue
Pranaam to bow down, bow down with bodily action, deh tho namavu te, In Namokaar mantra pranaam as well as vandan are included. see vandan too., salutation, Obeisance respect, worship, severance, homage, adoration, reverence, veneration, honor. નમસ્કાર, પ્રણામ, પ્રણિપાત
Pranav the mystic syllable Om
Pranidhaantaa intense desire.
Pranipaat salutation, Obeisance respect, worship, severance, homage, adoration, reverence, veneration, honor. નમસ્કાર, પ્રણામ, પ્રણિપાત
Pranit composed, compiled; prescribed; made, drawn up.
Prapanchit to describe in detail.
Prarupanaa see pratipaadan. affirming, representing, expounding, proving, illuminating, giving, granting, bestowing on, presenting to.bringing back, beginning, commencement, pratipatti, proving by giving evidence, establishing; expounding; exposition.
Prasaad satisfaction, delight; favor, grace; cleanliness, purity; sweetmeat etc. distributed at religious ceremony as gift from the deity, guru, etc; food offered to deity and taken by devotees after worship or sacrifice; perspicuity, clearness of style.
Prasaadi present given by deity or guru by way of blessing; grace; thrashing; food and other things offered to deity or guru.
Prasang (proper) time, occasion, circumstance; contact; living together, company; matter, subject; incident; calamity.
Prasann glad, delighted; satisfied; simple, easily understood; pure, clear, transparent, bright, free from blemish, correct.
Prasannataa being delighted, satisfied, pleasure, gladness with a smiling face.
Prasaravu to get diffuse, engrossed, spread, be diffused, vyaapi javu, vistaarvu, spread, be diffused,
Prashaanatta serenity
Prasham restraining the mind from passions and other evil tendencies, peace, pacification, calmness, destruction,
Prashaman assuaging, alleviation, mitigation, repose, giving,
Prashamin an ascetic, detached from house affairs.
Prashannataa being delighted, satisfied, etc.
Prashansaa praise, eulogy
Prashasta auspicious, excellent, commended, praised; praiseworthy; excellent; prescribed.
Prashasta bhaav pooja intense psychic worship.
Prashasta dhyan commendable meditation like dharma and shukla dhyan
Prashasta raag raag for vitragta. Aprashasta raag mean raag for raag, devotion in prayer for lord, teacher and scriptures. woman, king, thief and food related gossips and having inclination of attachment for these things are known as prashasta raag.
Prashasti praise, eulogy; poem or writing in praise of an object, benediction, prayer for good thing, small poem written in praise of any one.
Prashsy worthy of praise, praise.
Prasiddh famous, well known; (of book). published, brought out, celebrated, adorned, well known, notorious, celebrated, become visible, brought to light, clear, manifest, apparent, evident, displayed, unfolded, discover, illuminated, enlightened, published, promulgated.
Prasidhdhi accomplished, success, attainment, fame; celebrity; publicity; advertising, renown fame, rumor, universally known
Prataap power, prowess; grandeur, majesty; lustre; authority.
Pratapan to examine, hot,
Prathak vikriyaa separable transformation
Prathakatva separation, separateness,
Prathamaanuyog expositions related to mythology.
Prati dhwani echo
Prati naaraayan nine great personalities who are the enemy of naaraayaan They are: Ashwagriv, Taarak, Merak, Madhu kaitabh, Nishumbh, Bali, Praharan, Raavan, Jaraasangh
Pratibaddh bound; hindered, obstructed; [math.] conjugate.
Pratibandh hindrance, obstacle; objection; prohibition
Pratibhaa shine up on, to come in sight, wise, intelligent.
Pratibhaas manifest one’s self, to shine, be brilliant, have a bright appearance, appearance, similitude, look like, To shine, be brilliant, appearance, all six substances of universe are illuminating in the knowledge mode is known as pratibhaas ( gney is the eternal unique unchanging substance which is experienced in the knowledge mode is called gney samaysar kalash 271), reflection, intuition,,
Pratibhaasana appearing, appearance,
Pratibhaasit seen as reflection, manifestation, expression, vyakt,
Pratibhaasmaya perceiving exactly like the object.
Pratibimb reflected image, reflection; shade.
Pratibodh awakening; knowledge, understanding; advice, instruction; reminding; recollection.
Pratibuddh knowledgeable, learned person.
Pratichchhanda echo.
Pratichchheda opposition, virodh.
Pratighaat pratichchhand, echo,
Pratignaa promise, acknowledge, admit, confirm, assert, provable proposition, solemn declaration, resolution, Dharm ane dharmi na samudaay rup paksh ne kahevaane pratignaa kahe chhe. One who tells about the dharm (fire) and dharmi (mountain) is known as pratignaa. Thesis to be proved. It is the first member of the five membered syllogism.(five members are pratignaa, hetu, drastaant, upnay and nigaman).The premise, what is to be proved, in an inferential argument. Its purpose is to in form the other party of what is sought to be established and where: e.g. hill has fire.
Pratijivi gun in some attributes there is either purity or impurity is known as Pratijivi gun. in attributes where there is audaayik or kshayik bhaav then it is known as pratijivi gun. They do not have kshayopshamic bhaav. The ‘non affirmative attributes’ in a substance are known as pratijivi gun. e.g. non existence naastitva, non form ness amurtatva,, non consciousness achetanatva, Unobstructiveness (Avyabadh), accommodativeness (Avgahanatva), constancy of individuality (Agurulaghutva), and subtleness (Sukshmatva), are some of the non affirmative attributes of the soul. These attributes are found in the negative sense in a substance, and are called its ‘non affirmative attributes’ Non destructive karma are not the instrumental cause for making destruction of modes of affirmative attributes of the soul but are the instrumental cause in de struction of the modes of the non affirmative attributes of the soul.
Pratikraman ritualized repentance, Prati means to come kraman means back. to come back. To come back from deluded state to soul’s true nature, to get engrossed in true nature of the self, to come back from sinful activities and to observe auspi ciousness. Five types: 1: Devsi to perform at the end of the day, to repent sins performed during day. 2: Raaysi to perform at the end of night, to repent sins performed at night 3: Paakhi To perform at the end of fortnight to repent sins performed during 14 days. 4: Chaumasi to perform at the end of four months, to repent sins performed during last four months 5: Samvatsari to perform once a year to repent sins performed during that given year.
Pratikruti likeness; copy.
Pratikultaa adversity, contrary situation, unpleasant,
Pratimaa house holder’s restraint conduct stages. They are eleven in numbers. House holders spiritual progress stages. They are eleven in numbers 1: Faith stage of renunciation-Darshan pratimaa: He possesses perfect intelligence and has faith in Jainism principles. He has eight primary virtues of the householders, like not to consume meat, honey, alcohol and five fig types of tree’s fruits. He has given up affinity for these eight types of prohibited articles of food-abhakshaya food. 2: Vow stage of renunciation-Vrat pratimaa: He has accepted 12 partial vows of householders-they are five partial vows of non violence, non stealing, non lying, celibacy and non possesiveness. There are three supporting vows and four trainee’s vows. He does not perform violence towards the mobile living beings-tras jiv ni hinsa nathi. He is further progressing in his spirituality. 3: Equanimity stage of renunciation-Saamaayik pratimaa: Three times a day for 48 minutes each, he goes in to equanimity stage and reflects up on his true nature of soul. He tries to increase his spirituality in this fashion. 4: Fasting regularly stage of renunciation-Paushadh upvas pratimaa: As a rule he performs fasting at least twice in fortnight in each lunar month. During this fasting he also remains in secluded place and passes his time like a monk. 5: Refraining from eating uncooked vegetables-Sachit tyaag pratimaa:At this stage, he gives up eating raw vegetables, and refrains from plucking fruits from a tree and the like. He further nourishes his soul. 6: Avoiding eating at night type of renunciation-Ratribhukt tyaag pratimaa: He does not consume any food or drinks after sunset. 7: Celibacy vow renunciation-Brahmcharya pratimaa: He observes celibacy completely. Here celibacy not only means avoiding sexual gesture but also he engrosses himself in the true nature of the self. Brahma means pure nature of self and charya means to get engrossed in it. 8: Abandonment of merely worldly engagements and occupations type of renunciation-aarambh tyaag pratimaa: He does not engages self in cooking or business. 9: Non possession type of renunciation-Parigrah tyaag pratimaa: He gives up his possessions of the worldly things. He keeps only one cloth to cover the body. He distributes his wealth etc to his heirs and trains himself in the manner of the monk. 10: Refraining from giving advise about family or business matters-Anumati tyaag pratimaa: He does not interfere in the household matters. He does not give any advise related to family or business matters. 11: Not to consume food specially made for him type of renunciation-Uddisht tyaag pratimaa: After renunciation of householder’s life, retiring in to forrest and adopting the rules laid down for the guidance of ascetics. He is known as kshullak or elak. He is almost naked except for having a small loin cloth. He ac-cepts food from householder, just like monk. The householder who has entered 11th stage of renunciation is now ready to be entering in to asceticism stage. 1st to 6th stage householder is of lower quality-jaghanya-, 7th to 8th is medium-madhyam-, and 10-11th stage househoder is supreme-uttam-shravak-type of householder.
Pratiniyat fixed, nischit, niyat.
Pratipaad to set foot up on, resort to, to come back to,meet with, find, obtain,,to undertake, practice, perform, to become acquainted with
Pratipaadak expounding; proving, establishing., elucidate
Pratipaadak represent, expound, illuminator, causing to, obtain, giving, presenting to, explaining, teaching, accomplishing, promoting, expounding; proving, establishing.
Pratipaadak vaakya With some expectation the sentence is been said e.g. soul is with knowledge, soul is transmigratory, soul is different from body therefore does not perform the bodily function, soul is human being. these sentences with certain aspect let us know the nature of a substance, in this example, it shows soul’s presence.
Pratipaadan affirming, representing, expounding, proving, illuminating, giving, granti ng, bestowing on, presenting to.bringing back, beginning, commencement, pratipatti, proving by giving evidence, establishing; expounding; exposition.
Pratipaadya that has to be expounded, proved or established, established, expounded
Pratipaadya pratipaadak sambandh established establishing relationship, Absolute point is pratipaadya and conventional point is pratipaadak. That means conventional point directs one to the absolute point of view. The subject matter of absolute point of view is explained properly through conventional point of view. One does not take the literal meaning of the conventional point but take the intended mean ing of the sentence. e.g. Give me medicine for headache means give me medicine for taking away my headache. Soul has knowledge, faith and conduct attributes. Here it means that soul is the indivisible substance which includes infinite attributes like knowledge, faith, conduct. I am doing business. Here it means that I am doing the inclination of attachment for doing business. I gave up night time eating. Here it means that I do not have any inclination of attachment for eating at night. The conventional point of view will establish pratipaadya pratipaadak relationship to absolute point of view. A point to note that lower form of conventional form does not establish pratipaadya pratipaadak relationship with higher form of conventional point of view.
Pratipaadya vishay The presence of a thing for which the sentence is spoken, for example the pot of butter. Here the pot is the intended meaning of the sentence. Butter present in a particular pot, here the intended meaning is the butter present in a given pot.
Pratipaat disintegrate, to loose, fall, counter fall.
Pratipaksha opposite party; enemy, rival; [law] defendant, contradiction, contradictory, opposite
Pratipakshi member of opposite party; defendant
Pratipanna come up, resort to, go in to, approached, arrived, obtained, found, gained. ascertained, understood,
Pratipatti gaining, obtaining, acquiring, perception, observation, attainment, knowledge, intellect, supposition, ascertain, statement, acceptance, pratipaadan, acceptance, belief, continued cognition.
Pratisarana pursuit for good, getting inspiration in the right faith etc. types of attributes, learning upon, pursuit for good.
Pratishedh prohibition, forbiddance.
Pratishthaa installation ceremony for the idol, consecration festival, dedication ceremony, to stand, stay, abide, dwell, stand still, to stand firm, be established, thrive, prosper, to depend, to rely on, to withstand, resist, to extend over, to put down, to establish in, appoint to, bestow or to confer upon, steadfastness, stability, a stand point, foundation, pre eminence, superiority, high rank, celebrity, fame, establishment on, performance of a ceremony, consecration or dedication of an idol or monument,
Pratishthapan samiti careful about disposal of excreta
Pratit acknowledged, recognized, convinced of any thing, firmly resolved up on, trusting in, resolute.
Pratiti ascertain, conviction, confident, faith, belief, anubhav ni dasha.
Pratiti conviction, complete understanding, faith, belief, confidence. Nirvikalpa pratiti samyag darshan nu lakshan chhe, eklaa aatmaa ni pratiti e shradhdhaan nu lakshan chhe.
Pratitya confirmation, experiment,
Prativaadi opponent, listener. Vaadi mean speaker. prativaadi is listener. shrotaa, Pratiyogi
Prativarnikaa different colors of the impure gold.
Pratiyogi complimentary, negative, antagonist, counterpart,
Pratyaahaar renunciation, tyaag, abstraction, control of senses by withdrawal of praan from them so that they do not follow nature of mind, to tell in short.
Pratyaakhanavaran kashaay complete vow preventing toxic emotions, kashaay.
Pratyaakhyaan resolution or determination for not committing faults, Renunciation of certain foods, indulgences or activities for a specified period
Pratyaakhyaan chatuska a quartet related to passions.
Pratyaakhyaan kashaya obscuring passion in observing abstinent vows.
Pratyaakhyaanaavarniya karma prakruti Karmic nature obscuring positive resolution.
Pratyaakhyaanaavarniya kashaya passion obscuring or causing destruction of complete right conduct.
Pratyaasatti extremely close relations, sadrashtaa, of the same kind, sameness, similar, same,
Pratyabhigyaan recognition, “this is that only” recognition, soul substance is reason and the experience occurring in the mode is known as pratyabhigyan, as both the banks of the river is connected by bridge. and this is pratyabhigyan. kaaran kaarya ka jod rup gyaan, recognition, identification, Pratyabhigna, sangnaa and pratyavamarsh means pratyabhignaan. There are four parts to it: 1: ekatva oneness: This is same as before. This has to be Devdatt only 2: Saadrashya similar: this is similar to one I knew before. The roz is same as cow. 3: Vilakshan: different: this is different than what I knew from before. This buffalo is different than cow. 4: Prati yogi counterpart: by looking at a tree, one remembers the general nature of the tree and now he ends up knowing that this is the tree.
pratyaksha The complete proper knowledge obtained without any help of the senses or the mind constitutes transcendental knowledge (Parmarthik pratyaksha), Transcendental knowledge; The knowledge which has removed all the obstructions related to dravya, kshetra, kaal and bhaav of a substance and also occurs without any help from any physical senses is the absolutely pure knowledge and that is known as paarmaarthic pratyaksha gnaan. The knowledge, which is without any obstruction and is super sensuous is known as paarmaarthic pratyaksha gnaan. (pariksha mukh page 39), specific capacity of cognition of a soul which does not need any help from senses or the mind,
Pratyaksha direct knowledge, perceptible, visible, perceptible, present before the eyes, clear, distinct, manifest, actual, real, direct perception,
Pratyaksha direct knowledge, perceptible, visible,present, visible; clear; open; perceptible (by the senses, by the eye). n. sense perception.
Pratyaksha gnaan gochar udyotmaan, repeatedly known directly,
Pratyaksha pramaan acquiring direct knowledge with the support of one’s own soul i.e. atma na asraye. The knowledge which is clear, pure and transparent is known as pratyaksha pramaan. Vishad gnaan ne pramaan gnaan kahe chhe. The direct knowledge’s purity can be known with experience only. Pratyaksha pramaan ki nirmaltaa anubhav se jaani jaati hai. Characteristics of pratyaksha pramaan: (According to Akalakdev) The knowledge is clear vishad and it is without following three faults like: 1:Non comprehensive fault Avyapti. 2:The fault of including what is not intended to be included within a proposition Ativyapti, and. 3: An improbable fault Ashambhav. Pratyaksha pramaan direct cognition has two divisions: 1: Saamvyavahaarik Pratyaksha Pramaan direct knowledge in conventional sense: One which knows a thing clearly but partially with the help of senses and mind is known as saamvyavahaarik pratyaksha gnaan. For example, I did see clearly that person with my own eyes. 2:Paarmarthic pratyaksha transcendental knowledge:One, which knows the thing, clearly, without any help from instrumental cause is known as paarmaarthic pratyaksha. For example, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscient knowledge.
Pratyaksha pramaan ocular, direct, proof, direct or immediate way of knowing, direct knowledge,
Pratyaksha pratibhaasmaya directly perceiving the object the same way as it is.
Pratyaksha vaad positivism.
Pratyavamarsh pratyabhi gnaan, recognition, Sangnaa.
Pratyaya knowledge, cause, interrelation, causal, inflow, asrav, door of karmic influx, reason for karma bondage, asray, trust, confidence; conviction; cause; object; knowledge gained from direct experience; termination; pratyay means cause kaaran or instrumental cause nimitt. Suffix which gets added to stem (kriya),
Pratyaya sthaan situation causing for the karmic influx or inflow.
Pratyek vanaspati kaay solitary plant souls.
Pratyksha baadhit refutable,
Pratyupkaar requital of obligation, good turn in return, return of obligation.
Pratyutpann of present time, vartmaan kaal no. (atit of past, anaagat of future)
Pravachan pra means divine, vachan means sentences. Divine discourses is pravachan.
Pravachan bhakti The worship of scriptures.
Pravachan vaatshalya love and affection for one’s brethen is similar to the tender love of the cow and her calf.
Pravachansaar pra means great vachan means spoken words. saar means essence. Essence of spoken words of the omniscient lords. It is written by Aachaarya Kund kund and has 275 stanzas and its tikaa by Amrutchandra Aachaary and it is known as Tatva Pradipikaa. and Jaysen Aachaarya wrote tikaa and is known as Taatparya vrutti.
Pravartak that prompts, promotes or propagates. m. promulgator; originator, founder.
Pravartan propagation,
Pravartan propagation; spread,
Pravartanaa happening, construction, occurrence, causing to appear, bringing about, advancing, promoting, producing, introducing, employing, using, to publicize, to spread, propagation.
Pravartnaar propagator, chalaavanaar,
Pravichaar sexual desire,
Pravihaay to discard
Pravrajyaa complete renunciation of the world and its attachments; the fourth and last stage of life., sanyaas.
Pravrutt current, prevailing; engaged inactivity; started ; set on foot, put in motion.
Pravrutti implementation
Pravrutti vishay conative object, ichchha vishay,
Pravrutti vishayak conative,
Prayat attentive, self restraint.
Prayatna effort, endeavor.
Prayog use, application; experiment, trial; tantric remedies such as performance (of worship), practice (of yoga etc.); performance (of drama); voice; law, rule.
Prayojak occasioning, causing, effecting, leading to, inciting, stimulating, deputing, an employer, an author, a founder, an institutor, a money lender, legislator, an instigator.
Prayojak one who yokes, manages or arranges; writer, author; entrepreneur.
Prayojan purpose, object, motive, occasion, use, employment, application, aim, a means of attaining, cause, motive, opportunity, purpose, design, aim, motive for discussing the point in question.
Prayojan vat having or done with particular object, selfish, useful, serviceable, caused, produced, having or connected with or serving any purpose or interest, interested, having a cause, produced, caused,
Prayojana motive, purpose, object, cause, aim, one which produces happiness and removes misery is known as prayojan, object, cause, opportunity, intension, reason; use; need, on purpose, a motive for discussion the point in question.
Prayojanam means of attaining.
Prayojanbhut kaaranbhut, instrumental, forming the cause, causal,purposeful,
Prayojanvaan purposeful, useful.
Prayojanvaan purposefulness
Prayojya a servant, an employee, to be appointed or commissioned, dependent, slave,
Prayojyataa applicability, aptness, to be used or employed, to be practiced,
Prayojyatva state of being used or employed,
Prerak Nimitt active instrumental cause. They are the instrumental causes in the form of the souls which are moving, matter which are moving and souls with desires etc. They can not force the primary cause to perform the act. They are simply present as instrumental causes.
Preraka that inspires, prompts, urges, causal
Preranaa urging; inspiration; encouragement; order, command; secret prompting or advice.
Prerit inspired; promoted; urged; sent.
Preshan to delegate, to send some one.
Prit pleased, glad,
Priti love, affection, pleasure, delight, gratification, contentment, favor, friendship
Pritikar causing pleasure to honor,
Pritikaran honor,
Proshadhopavaash vrat Paushadh vrata, monkhood exposure vow,
Pruthak separately, severally.
Pruththakkaran analysis; separating the constituent ingredients of a substance.
Pruthu broad; extensive.
Pruthu wide, broad, extensive,
Pruthubudhn wide bottom,
Pudgal matter, non living matter.
Pudgal paraavartan matter cyclic change period
Pudgal parmaanu indivisible particles of matter.
Pudgalollaas mode of matter.
Pujaa honor, respect, worship, reverence, veneration, homage to superiors, adoration of god.
Pujaa griha house of worship, temple
Pujaa khand house of worship,temple,
Pujaa vidhi paying respect, showing homage,
Pujak honoring, respecting, worshipping, a worshiper,
Pujanaa reverencing, honoring, worship respect, attention,hospitable reception,
Pujaniya to be revered, to be worshipped, venerable, honorable,
Pujita honored, treated respectfully, worshipped, adored,
Pujya honorable, righteous, virtuous, worthy, trustworthy, noble, reliable.
Pujyapanaa virtuosity, worthiness, reliability.
Pujyataa venerableness, honorableness,
Pulaak muni see muni. He does not have affinity for secondary virtues. He also has not perfected the primary vows.
Pungi fal sopari,
Punit pure, clean,
Punj heap, mass, quantity, multitude,numbers.
Punya holy; meritorious; righteous; religious. m. meritorious deed; its fruit, merit.
Punya bhaav soul’s auspicious manifestation of consciousness, wholesome, auspicious dispositions
Purandari wife of indra, indraani,
Purnaanand full of super sensuous bliss, god,
Purnataa completeness, perfect, completeness; whole; finished.
Purohit family priest, officiating at sacrifices etc.
Purush spirit, individual soul. one of two basic categories of sankhya system. It is pure consciousness, unattached and unrelated to anything. It is non active, unchanging, eternal, and pure
Purushaartha perseverance, effort, vitality, personal efforts, Please also see the table at the end of the dictionary.
Purusottam Tirthankar bhagwan. best among all living beings.
Purva most ancient Jaina writings. There are 14 purvas. They are as follow: 1:Utpaad Purva utpaad vyay dhrovya 2:Agraayani purva sunaya durnaya 3:Viryaanuvaad purva dravya guna paryaay 4:Asti Naasti pravaad purva sapta bhangi 5:Aatma gnaan pravaad purva 8 division of knowledge 6:Satya pravaad purva 12 languages and 10 parts of truth. 7:Aatma pravaad purva nature of soul and 6 types of living beings. 8:Karma pravaad purva nature and types of karma 9:Pratyaakhyaan purva vrat niyam tap pratikarman etc. 10:Vidyaanuvaad purva Possesion of all vidyaa 11:Kalyaanvaad purva 63 salaakaa purush and kalyanak of all tirthankars 12:Praanpravaad purva astaang aayurved and praanaayam etc 13:Kriyaavishaal purva Nrutya, shastra sangit vyaakaran 14:Trailokya bindu purva Nature of three worlds.
Purvaahn first part of the day, time between 48 minutes after sunrise to 48 minutes prior to noon. This is also known as gausargik. ( see kaalaachaar for further details)
Purvak with, accompanied by (at end of compd.).
Purvarang prologue (of a drama); prelude.
Purvavat anumaan like the previous one. It proceeds from a perceived cause to an unperceived effect, e.g. the inference of rain from the perception of dark heavy clouds. It is based on the observed concomitance of the specific major term (saadhya) and middle term (hetu). ( વેદાંત ) જ્યાં કારણરૂપે લિંગ વડે કાર્યરૂપ સાધ્યની અનુમતિ થાય તે અનુમાન. જેમ મેઘની ઘટાવિશેષ વડે વરસાદનું અનુમાન થાય છે, તેમા તે કાર્ય છે અને મેઘોની ઘટા વિશેષ કારણ છે. કેટલાક ગ્રંથકારો પૂવ શબ્દનો અર્થ અન્વયવ્યાપ્તિ કરે છે. તે અન્વયવ્યાપ્તિવાય જે કેવલાન્વિય અનુમાન તેને પૂર્વવત કહે છે. વધુ ઉપયોગ(૧) પૂર્વવત, (૨) શેષવત (૩) સામન્યતોદષ્ઠ એ ત્રણ પ્રકારના અનુમાન છે. કારણરૂપ હેતુથી કાર્યનું અનુમાન કર તે પૂર્વવત કહેવાય. જેમક, આકાશમાં વાદળાનો ઘટાટોપ જોઈ વૃ્ષ્ટિનું અનુમાન કરવું તે પૂર્વવત અનુમાન કહેવાય. સાંખ્યદર્શન
Pushti nourishment; support; encouragement; help, assistance; God's grace.